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System and Type of Farming




  • The combination of products on a given farm and the methods and practices, which are followed in the production of these products is known; as system of farming on that particular farm. When farms in a group are quite similar in the kinds and proportions of crops, like vegetables, gardening, live-stock etc., and these are also similar in methods and practices followed in their production. That group is described as type of farming. Type of farming may be defined in many ways depending upon the contrast on mind. The most frequent distinction made is the source of income ‘as wheat farming. Fruit growing and so on the distinction may be more general as livestock farming or grain farming. Kind or type or system of farming almost have same meaning when used in loose sense, but the type of farming in narrow sense, means the most common system of farming prevalent in a particular tract.

     

    Factors affecting the choice of a farming system/type:

    There are many factors which determine the choice of a farming system on a particular farm. Although, the broad out line of the farming system on a .particular farm may not change with time, the specific kinds of small-scale operations and features always change. Thus, when one looks at the small-scale features of a system, a farming system changes with changes in technology, standard of living of the farmers and general population, product demand, income, and many other factors. At a given time or on any given farm, one factor may affect the choice of a farming system; at other times or at other farms, a different factor may have a more important influence on the system or the way it changes.

    The following factors affect the choice of a farming system for a particular farm.

    1.      Climate: Temperature and duration of the frost-free period, rainfall and irrigation, solar radiation and photoperiod, humidity, wind and storms,and air pollutants.

    2.      Soil: Texture, depth, slope; erosion, pH, fertility, deficiencies of nutrient elements, and drainage.

    3.      Genetic potential 0/ plants and animals: What crops ‘and animals are adapted to the environmental conditions of the specific farm.

    4.      Socio-politic-economic: factors: Population’ pressure, consumer preferences, credit,’ demand , prices and farm income, markets, transportation, farmer psychology, farm site, tenancy, etc.

    5.      Biological/actors: Weeds, ‘diseases, insects, and other pests.

    6.      Technology: Availability of improved production technology, machinery, and mechanization.

    7.      Resources: Seeds, fertilizers, insecticides, herbicides, capital, labour, etc

    8.      Miscellaneous: Proximity of agro-based industry, export facilities, cold storage facilities, etc .

     

     Key Referene : General agriculture By Muhammad Akhtar Abbas

     

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