Cultivation of Spring Mash (Vigna mungo)
Muhammad Roman1*, Muhammad Nazar1
1Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan
Correspondence E: Mail: [email protected]
- Common Name: Mash/Black gram
- Botanical Name: Vigna mungo
- Family: Fabaceae
Mash is an important leguminous crop grown in both spring and kharif season. It takes less time to mature and also insect pest attack is low in spring season as compared to kharif (autumn) season. It is highly contained with good quality proteins and other important vitamins.
Punjab produces 80% of its total production in Pakistan. It is mostly grown in barani areas i.e. 88% mash is cultivated in Narowal, Rawalpindi. Chakwal, Jehlum, D.G.Khan and Gujrat.Its average production per acre is low due to improper sowing time, no use of modern technology and insect pest attack. Production per acre can be increased by using following improved verities and production technology.
- Mash 88: It is suitable for both irrigated and barani areas.
- Mash 97: It is short duration variety and becomes mature 10 days earlier than Mash 88.It is suitable for regions with high rainfall like Rawalpindi and Gujranwala divisions. It has resistance against viral and leaf wilting diseases.
- Chakwal Mash: It is best for barani areas. It has normal grain size with resistance against diseases.
- Mash Arooj: It can be grown in central and southern Punjab.
Soil type: Ideal soils are fertile and well drained loam or sandy loam. Optimum pH range is 5.5–7.5.Saline and waterlogged soils are not suitable for its cultivation.
Land preparation: The land is prepared to get fine tilth for uniform germination. Plough the field with mould board plough, use cultivator two/three times and level the soil with planker to ensure uniform availability of water in the field.
Sowing time: Spring mash can be grown till the end of March, however second week of March is most suitable for its sowing.
Seed rate: Seed should be clean and healthy with high germination percentage. Use 8 kg for regions with high rainfall and 10 kg for other areas. Seed should be treated with fungicides using 2 to 3 g fungicide per kg seed to control different root diseases.
Seed inoculation: Seed should be inoculated with Rhizobium strains before sowing to promote nitrogen fixing process in root nodules. For this, prepare inoculant material by mixing 250 ml water with 50 g sugar and recommended amount of rhizobium strain given on packet for 10 kg seed. After inoculation dry the seeds under shade and then sow.
Sowing method. Sowing should be done in proper wattar conditions for better germination. It can be sown by automatic drill or single row cotton drill or using pora method. Seed depth is 2-2.5 inch with R*R spacing 1 ft. and P*P 3-4 inch.
Use of fertilizers: Legume crops require less nitrogen fertilizers because they fix atmospheric nitrogen in their root nodules with association of Rhizobium bacteria. However use of phosphorus fertilizers increase the production. For mash crop use 1 bag of DAP and 0.5 bag of potassium sulphate or 2.5 bags of SSP, half bag Urea and half bag potassium sulphate per acre before sowing.
Irrigation requirements: It is necessary to irrigate crop at critical stages to avoid heavy losses. First irrigation is given after three weeks of sowing and second at flowering. Then irrigate the crop 1 to 2 times according to need at pod formation.
Weed control: Weeds compete with crop and can decrease yield up to 50%.Imporatant weeds in mash crop are Itsit(Trianthema portulacastrum), Jangli cholai (Amaranthus viridus) , Bathoo, Khabal(Cynadon doctylon), Madhana(Eleusine indica) ,Sawanki( Eulohorbia hirta) etc. To control them first hoeing is done during 25-30 days of sowing and second hoeing in 35-45 days of sowing after first irrigation.
- Chemical control: Spray Pendimethlene 1 liter per acre just after the sowing to control weeds. Lactofin 300 ml per acre for broad leave weed and Haloxyphop methyl 350 ml per acre for narrow leave weeds can be used for control.
Insect control: Use Acetameprid 125-150 g and Imidacloprid 400 ml per acre to control sucking insects (whitefly, aphid, thrips). To control army worm spray Thaiodacard 330 g per acre.
- Mosaic/yellowing of leaves: can be controlled by controlling whitefly.
- White spot disease: spray 2% Benomil to control it.
- Root wilting: control by seed treatment with fungicides
Harvesting/yield: The plants are harvested when 80% of the pods are matured. Average yield is 1000 kg/ha.