Soybean was scientifically known as Glycine max.
Soybean demand is increasing day by day due to its versatile characteristics. Soybean contains unparallel composition, fantabulous nutritious value, salubrious benefits, adaptability to different kinds of soils and environmental conditions, and has diversity in end uses. Soybean is the highest degree important crop in the world containing 40-42% protein (high quality) and 18-20% fats. Production of soybean in Pakistan is low. So, to fulfill needs soybean imported as soy meal or as soy oil. For the promotion of soybean, production efforts were not made that is why the cultivation of soybean limited to rock bottom. According to consumption requirements, there is need to promote the production of soybean.
Domestication of soybean started 6000 years ago, in China. Now, due to its unique characteristics soybean has become an industry of billions of dollars, and leading part of livestock’s feed and human diets. In Pakistan, soybean cultivation for commercial utilization starts in 1970’s. Soybean gives high yield in a mild climate and northern areas as compared to those areas having severe climatic conditions.
Soybean called “king of beans” due to its splendid characteristics of having a high percentage of protein and unsaturated fats. In earlier days, soya meal was used as a by-product that is in oil extraction procedure. Now, soya meal is a leading ingredient in the feed that is prepared for chickens. Soya oil is second major oil use for cooking purpose.
As population increases, soybean demand increases. Because feed requirements are increasing. In future, with the increased population, there will be more demand for meat, fats, vegetables, fruits, and dairy products. Therefore, if we increase production of soy then we can feed livestock in a good manner and feed requirements can fulfill in a bang-up manner. When we eat meat, dairy products, or eggs actually we take soy indirectly because chicken contains 575g soy per Kg of product, the egg contains 307g soy per Kg, and beef contains 173 Kg per Kg of product.
Here, I am describing derived products of soybean, which shows that how we take soy indirectly?
- Soy used as “ crushed” or as “whole beans”
- Products of “ crushed soy” are, hull products, extracted crude oil, and extracted meal
- Hull products used in edible oils, margarine, biofuel, and industrial usage purposes.
- On another hand “whole beans” can be toasted or fermented
- Fermented soy is used for, soya souse and in other food products
- Extracted meal and toasted whole beans are used in “animal feed production”. This feed is given to livestock, poultry. We take milk, meat, eggs, and dairy products from them, so, actually take soy indirectly.
In the United States, they have developed many good verities and they improved their production method and fertilization for soybean and gaining high production. Pakistan increases soybean import day by day instead of production and it is just due to lack of awareness. In 2014-15, import of soybean recorded 50,000 tons, which is increased to 1.5 million tons in 2015-16. Therefore, there is, need to lower down the export of soya and save finance for other requirements by improving cultivation method and awareness.
Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics
University of Agriculture Faisalabad