A Cost Effective Technique of Direct Seeding Rice in Water Deficit Areas
Muhammad Umair Yasin*1, Ahmad Latif Virk2, Muhammad Ahmad Arain1, Naeem Ahmad1 and Usman Zulfiqar1
1 Crop Nutrition and Irrigation Management Lab, Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.
2 Agro-climatology Lab, Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.
*Corresponding Author Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Direct seeding involves sowing of seed on to the soil surface that seed later on incorporated into the soil by ploughing and harrowing. Dry direct seeding is a cost effective and novel technique practiced in rain fed areas. In rain fed areas, different methods are adopt to sow rice seed that are as following
Broadcasting involves spreading of seed onto the surface of soil manually. For dry direct seeding rice, 60-80 kg seed of rice broadcasted over field of one hectare. To enhance the germination percentage of broadcasted seeds are cover by using spike tooth harrow in order to conserve soil moisture. This method is cost effective and labor intensive.
In this technique, rice seeds placed into the soil by using precision machinery such as turbo happy seeder. For drilling of rice seed, 80-100 kg seed rate used for one hectare. Using a mechanical equipment seeds placed into both dry and moist soil, in case of dry sowing that followed by irrigation. In case of drilling, it is necessary to ensure that seeds not placed at depth greater than 10-15 mm. Fertilizers can also be applied with the placing of seed. Hand weeding technique is much easier than broadcasting in drilling.
This method is widely adopted in hilly areas where mechanical equipment’s are difficult to use. Dibbling is just placing the seed into the hole. In order to practice long woody poles used with a metal notch. In this technique, seeds dropped into the hole and being cover with soil.
- Management of weeds infested field
Weeds infestation rate in direct seeding rice is quite high that tackled by using different techniques, which will be discussed.
4.1. Stable seedbed technique
This technique greatly reduce the weeds in rice field. This method is widely adopted in the soil that has high weed seeds infestation. Firstly, tillage operations performed by using plough harrow and other mechanical equipment’s. After that, light irrigation applied. In order to allow the weeds to emerge. After two weeks weeds killed by, using long selective herbicides (e.g. glyphosate) or cultivation technique used to kill the weeds.
4.2. Herbicide application
Chemical substances used to eradicate unwanted plants known as herbicides or weed killers. Herbicide application depends on the type of weed. For effective control of weeds in rice field, three types of herbicides are used.
4.2.1. Pre planting
This type of herbicide applied before the sowing of crop in order to kill weeds or existing vegetation that is undesirable in rice field. For this purpose, non-selective herbicides are used (e.g. glyphosate, paraquat and glufosinate). Glyphosate and glufosinate are mostly used to control weeds in rice field while, paraquat is banned in some countries due to its harming effects.
4.2.2. Pre emergence
This type of herbicide applied after the sowing of rice seed in the field. Pre emergence herbicides applied after 1-3 days after sowing to ensure weed eradication. For dry direct seeding rice, different type of pre emergence herbicides are used (e.g. oxadiazon, pendimethalin and oxadiagyl)
4.2.3. Post emergence
These herbicides applied after the emergence of crop. Usually when weeds are at 3-4 leaf stage. This method is helpful in reducing the weed crop competition at early stage. Different types of herbicides and herbicides mixtures are used (e.g. bisparybacbispyribac, fenoxaprop + safener, fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron, metsulfuron + chlorimuron, azimsulfurom, penoxsulam, penoxsulam + cyhalofop, bentazon, 2, 4-D).