Management Strategies of Livestock Industry
(Muhammad Wajid Javed, Muhammad Hamid Javed & Naseem Ahmed)
Nobody can run a successful and well going enterprise, industry or business without having a keen look over the practices and strategies adopted for establishment purpose of that particular job. Similarly running the livestock industry (especially milk and beef sites) on sound footing involves a number of cares and good doing instincts. For the attainment of that purpose and be progressive in this field of interest, it is much vital to consider and comprehend the following things and practices to avoid the business losses:-
(A) Selection on the base of genetics:
It demands selection of animals with good genetics such as more production of milk and more resistance to diseases.
(B) Pedigree record:
It requires selection of animals with good performance of their forefathers.
Selection of animals with better appearance, body and free from wounds etc.
It is the application of scientific knowledge to the genetic improvement of the animals.
Animal breeding systems:
These are four breeding Systems:
a) Random mating
a)Random mating: Involves mating on random basis without any order
b)Assortative mating : Mating involving similar individuals and dissimilar individuals with respect to traits.
c) Inbreeding : Mating of closely relate individuals (e.g. son and dam)
d)Out-breeding : Mating of unrelated individuals.
Management of livestock cannot be complete without the provision of planned and economical housing facilities for them. Improperly planned housing may result in additional labor charges, reducing the profit of the businessman or owner of the dairy farm. Comfortable living, durability and arrangements for the production of hygienic milk, etc., are important for proper housing of animals.
It is the provision of proper place to an animal for living, feeding and other similar activities etc.
LOCATION OF FARM BUILDING
The following points may help in deciding about the location of building for placing animals:
i) Water supply: Ample supply of clean water should be available at the farm for washing, cleaning and for consumption by humans as well as livestock.
ii) Topography: It should be high and level with no abrupt slopes. The soil should be porous and the slope gentle. It helps in keeping the buildings well drained and thus animal health is easily maintained.
iii) Sun exposure and wind protection: The location of the building should be such that the maximum exposure in the north and minimum in the south is obtained. Also, protection from strong prevailing winds, whether hot or cold, is required. To have maximum benefit of the sunlight, the long axis of the farm building should be set in the north-south direction.
iv) Accessible : The farm buildings should be located about 100 meters away from the main road keeping in view the possibility of easy accessibility of the farm.
v) Marketing: The farm should possibly be located in an area where the producer can sell his products profitably and regularly. Road links with surrounding markets or consumption centers are highly desirable.
vi) Durability: Although the construction of elaborate and expensive buildings for animals should be avoided yet the durability of farm structures is always and must consider.
Modal or types:
i) The conventional dairy houses
ii) The loose housing system in combination with some sort of milking parlor.
THE CONVENTIONAL DAIRY HOUSES:
The general lay-out of dairy farms should be planned depending on the number of animals to be housed, facilities to be provided for feeding the animals economically, collection of manure and cleaning and washing. The principles of animal management, general hygiene and sanitation and disinfection should be kept in view. It generally consists of living or standing area of animals , cemented water trougs in the outside area for adequate supply of water and also equipped with other such kinds of facilities for animals. Aeration must be considered in regard to animal health and fitness by leaving proper space between pillars of the farm building and exposing it to the fresh wind direction.
LOOSE HOUSING SYSTEM:
Loose housing may be defined as a system where animals are kept loose except at the time of milking. It is an economical system and usually practiced at farms or sheds with medium modern facilities.
Shed of animals must have separate places (pens) for claves, bulls, pregnant animals and sick animals including office and storage rooms.
The conventional dairy houses
i. More cost of construction
ii. More facilities to animals
iii. Easy management
LOOSE HOUSING SYSTEM
i) Cost of construction is significantly lower than for conventional type.
ii) It is possible to make further expansion without many alterations.
iii) Animals get optimum exercise which is important for better health and production.
iv) Detection of animals in heat is facilitatedby using teaser bull in the herd of animals.
It is related to nutrition in a general sense.
This is the science of use of feed. It includes all the processes by which an animal ingests, digests, absorb and uses the nutrients in feed for maintenance growth, work and reproduction.
The chemical substances found in feed material that can be used and are necessary for growth, maintenance, production and health of animals. These include water, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, minerals and vitamins.
Classification of feed:-
It can be divided in to three main types’ roughages, concentrate and additive.
A coarse bulky feeds, high in fiber content (more than 18%) and low in total digestible nutrients (less than 60%).
There are two types of roughages green and dry
It includes pasture which obtained from grasses, legumes, shrubs and trees, green chop obtained from legume and non-legume roughages, silage and tree leaves of ipil ipil and mulberry are used as green roughages.
It includes hay, straw, Stover, corn cobs, hulls and bagasse.
It has less nutritional value as compared to concentrate and required for daily maintenance of animal.
Feeds which are low in fiber content(less than 18%) and high in total digestible nutrients (more than 60%).
It can be divided in to two types’ energy feeds and protein supplement.
It includes cereal grain, grain milling, roots and tubers and other agro industrial by products.
It includes vegetable and animal protein. Animal protein obtained from meat meal, blood meal and fish meal, and vegetable protein obtained from soya bean meal and sunflower meal.
It is more notorious than roughages and required during production stages of animal.
An ingredient or combination of ingredients added to basic mix to help fulfill a specific need. It includes minerals supplements, vitamin supplements, synthetic amino acids, drugs, preservatives, buffers and hormones.
There are two types of feeding method head to head and tail to tail.
Head to head:
Here, heads of animals are facing towards each other, less or no considering their udder health. More space is required. It is expensive than tail to tail system. Two gates will be needed fof the movement of animal.
Tail to tail:
Here, heads of animals are facing away from each other, involves easy cleaning of shed and also considering their udder health. Less space is required. More economical, less cost of construction. Single gate can serve the purpose for movement of animal.
Make feed available at every time (i.e. ad libtum).
Providing fresh and good quality water to animal is known as watering.
Plenty of water should be available at the farm premises, for washing, cleaning and for consumption of human as well as animal.
It involves the availability of fresh water at farm. We provide the fresh water to animal in water troughs or sometimes in ponds.
All the time water is needed to animal, especially in summer when temp. Is high.
Adjusted according to number of animals and season.
It is the lacteal secretion of milch animals before 15 days and after 5 days of calving.
In the early morning and in the evening with 12 hours interval (e.g. if milking at 3 pm then other milking at 3am)
Hand milking and machine milking are the two methods of which in Pakistan.
- Hand Milking
Cows are milked from left side. after let down of milk, the milker starts milking teats either cross wise or fore quarters together and then hind quarters together or teats appearing most distended milked first few streams of fore milk from each teat be let on to a strip cup. This removes any dirt from the teat canal and gives the operator a chance to detect mastitis.
- Machine Milking
Modern milking machines are capable of milking cows quickly and efficiently, without injuring the udder, if they are properly installed, maintained in excellent operating conditions, and used properly. The milking machine performs two basic functions.
It opens the streak canal through the use of a partial vacuum, allowing the milk to flow out of the teatcistern through a line to a receiving container.
It massages the teat, which prevents congestion of blood and lymph in the teat.
Milking barns with good ventilation and neat flooring avoids contamination from this sources, Dry feeds or forage should be fed after milking.
Milker is directly responsible in producing good quality milk. Dirty hands and clothing of the milker may be the source of contamination. Several bacterial diseases may transmit from the milker, or handler to the consumer through milk. Utensils are the containers or equipments in which the milk is handled, processed, stored or transported. Clean sanitized, smooth copper free and dry utensils may be used for handling milk. Milk is kept in cool place to maintain the flavour and keeping quality.
Milk should be covered with lids to avoid dust, dirt, entry hot, or cold, day light or strong artificial light, all at which tend to decrease milk quality.
Raw milk with not exceeding 2, 00,000 specific count in one ml of milk can be graded as very good raw milk. Must check the growth of micro-organisms in the milk by the application of different sterilization and also know about the fat %, soluble solids etc in the milk by conducting tests.
Naseem Ahmed is student of B.Sc. (Hons.) Agri. Biotechnology(CABB, University of , Faisalabad). He is also affiliated with Agrihunt as an author.
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