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Layer poultry farming




  • Definition of Layer Chicken:
    Layer chicken is a special species of hen for egg production which have to raise from when they are one day old. They start laying egg from 18-19 weeks of age. They remain laying egg continually to their 72-78 weeks of age. They produce about one kg of egg eating 2.25 kg of food during their laying egg period. For the purpose of producing hybrid layer egg, considering the desired characteristics mating different types of cock and hen trough long research making more egg laying hens are called hybrid layer.
    Name of Layer Species:
    According to the nature and color of egg, layer hens are of two types.
    White Egg Hen:
    This types of hen are comparatively small in size, relatively eat less food and the color of egg shell is white. Isa White, Lehman White, Nikchik, Bab Cock BV-300, Havard White, Hi Sex White, Sever White, Hi line White, Bovanch White etc. are good example of white egg laying hen.
    Brown Egg Hen:

    Brown egg hen are relatively large in shape. They eat more food. Lays big egg than other species. Egg shell is brown. There are many types of brown hen. Such as, Isa Brown, Hi Sex Brown, Sever 579, Lehman Brown, Hi Line Brown, Bab Cock BV-380, Gold Line, Bablona Tetro, Bablona Harko, Havard Brown etc.
    Layer Hen Selection:
    You have to keep in mind some essential information before selecting the layer for your farm. You have to select those species which is suitable for your business.
    • For layer production you have to chose high productive hen correctly.
    • All types of hen does not produce equal eggs.
    • Well quality hen have to collect.
    • If the desired characteristic has a fame then layer can be collect.
    • Layer should have to collect from a famous hatchery.
    Cockerel Keeping:
    During the first weeks of their birth many cockerel suffers  by not to drink water due to caring one place to another. So adequate drink water system have to make in their brooder house and they have to be trained to drink water. They can easily get energy if you mix 5% glucose with water. Any types of high quality multivitamin can be served mixing with water, suggested by electrolyte production companies instruction. Multivitamin and electrolyte are very useful while farmer carry cockerel from a long distance. It reduces tiredness and lack of water and make the cockerel normal.
    Vaccination and it’s Importance:
    Layer Chicken

    Vaccination program is a must for cockerel to keep them free from disease. There are some advantage of vaccination.

    • It make illness resistance power.
    • Keep the hen free from infective illness.
    • Disease prevalence will be less.
    • Mortality rate will be in a moderate stage.
    There are many types of vaccine available for layer hen. Marex, Ranikheth, Gamboro, Bruchaities, Bosonto, Salmonela, Karaiza etc. Those vaccine are used for layer chicken.
    Marex, Ranikheth, Gamboro are used for broiler chicken.
    Before Vaccination:
    You have to maintain some rule before vaccination.
    • Hen should Catch very carefully.
    • Chicken have to vaccinate without any strain.
    • There is no need to vaccinate the ill hen.
    • Vaccination equipment must have to be boiled in boiling water.
    • Vaccination program should happen when the weather is cold.
    • Preventive vaccine is always applicable to healthy bird.
    Growing Cockerel  Keeping Method:
    You have to maintain the suggestion listed below for growing layer cockerel.
    • They have to provide special care until they reach 4-5 weeks of age.
    • After brooding good quality pullet have to serve.
    • It result good in future.
    • It produce egg highly.
    • Make the chicken healthy.
    • Increase body weight.
    • So it is very important to select and keeping of pullet.
    Egg Production from Commercial Layer Farm:
    Egg production from a commercial layer farm depends on farm management. If the farmer takes special care of their farm then the production will high.
    • 5% of hen lays egg when they reach the age 20 weeks.
    • About 10% lays at the age of 21 weeks.
    • When they reach 26-30 weeks they produce highly. It may be different according to their strain.
    • After laying maximum number of eggs they remain paused for a few days.
    • And after that the egg production reduces slowly.
    • The size of egg big according with their increasing of laying egg rate.
    • The hen grows until they are 40 weeks old.
    • Weight of egg increase until they reach 50 weeks of age.
    Method and Importance of Lip Cutting:
    • To reduce fight among them.
    • To prevent food loss.
    • Cockerel should cut their lip at the age of 8-10.
    • Growing cockerel should 8-12 weeks.
    • For cockerel 0.2 cm from their nose should cut.
    • Growing hen 0.45 cm should cut.
    • Both lips have to cut.
    • Both lips should cut off one after another.
    • Block chick triaming machine, hi speed triaming machine and dibikar can use to cut the lip.
    When Lip Should Not Cut:
    • Two days after or before vaccinate.
    • After or before serving medicine like sulfur.
    • If the hen in a strain.
    • Much weather change.
    • If the hen start laying egg.
    Hen

    Water mixed with vitamin “K” have to served three days before cutting lips. Lips cutting instrument should washed with antiseptic. Test the edge and temperature of blade. You have to be careful so that the eyes and tongue are not damage. Choose cold weather to cut the lip. Lip cutting process should observed by an experienced technician. After cutting lip water should served in a deep pot. Extra meat should provide.

    Food:
    There are many company in our country who make food for layer hen. You can buy food from local market. You have to be sure that the food you bought are enriched with value. Protein and mineral are very important for layer production. However, you also can make layer food by your own.
    • 2% of calcium should provide for two weeks before they are 2 weeks old.
    • If the weight is not expected you can serve starter feed up to eight weeks.
    • Food can served two or three time in a day to next 18 week.
    • Demand of food increase fast when they start laying.
    • Food should provide according to the age and weight.
    • Food should not less when they are laying if their weight increase.
    Water Management:
    Hen’s health depend on the quantity of drinking water. Farmer have to provide water according to their demand. To purify the water 0.3 g bliching can mix per litter. Determine a suitable place to keep the water pot. When it is summer season you have to supply cold water.

    In accordance with age and species providing food, weight can increased. Sufficient calcium, phosphorus, vitamins, amino acid and other mineral substance have to use in food. Bliching powder or chlorine and be used to purify water. Thus one farmer can be success in layer hen business.

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