Cow Farm Management:
The demand of milk per year in our country is 12.52 million metric tons, the production per year is about 2.28 million metric tons and the deficit yearly is 10.24 million metric tons. About 50,000 small or big dairy farm are build up to meet up this demand. Dairy farm with hybrid cows are very profitable business now. So farmers need to know about improved management, proper breeding, balanced diet, preventing disease, primary care and modern technologies.
Good Cow Feature:
The good cows features are, its head will be light and small size, forehead will wide, bright eyes and very interested in food. Front side of body will be light, back side will heavy and well structured, attractive body structure and loose body formation. Bone formation of the chest will have to be well structured. Skin should be thin, no unnecessary fat under the skin, color of the skin and hair will shiny and smooth. Nipple will be large well organized with body size. Four nipple will be equal to the distance. Milk vein would thick and clear.
Farm management is one type of strategy through which farm resources, chance and time can be adjustment. Benefits of well management include-
- Parsimony of asset.
- Profit in short time.
- More production in short time.
- Prevent the wastage of energy and labor.
- Profit in production
The characteristics of a cow inherited from its father or mother. The quality of cow can be high but it managed well. Keeping clean daily, scientific shelter, regular food supply, proper breeding, disease prevention and management is the issue to improve cow farm.
If you want to keep the cow at family or farm better accommodation is needed. Adequate housing or cowhouse is necessary to keep the cow free from some adverse condition such as storms, rain, cold and heat, other natural hazard, misery, insects, wild bird and thief. According to our climate for lot of light and air the cowhouse should have to be south faced. The state of the room should not wet in any circumstances. It will be better if the floor of cowhouse are carpeting with brick. In order to keep free from odor, fly, mosquito,the floor needs to wash occasionally with germicide. The cowhouse may be two types. Open or free house and fixed or common room.
Under this method, the cow can be observed by tiding a chain with iron. Cows feeding, water and taking milk can be done from same location.
Taking milk from is very easy in this system because the cow tided with chain. The animals are in safe at adverse weather. Suitable for artificial reproduction. Cows can be raised in a fixed small place.
The cost in this method is high. Easy movement are not available in this system, so the cows can’t take any exercise as a result it suffers by different types of diseases. As the cows tied all over the day so the floor is always wet.
Fixed House Design:
In this method the cows are always tied. For this reason the cowhouse can’t be clean easily. Keep in mind this farmer should make shelter for cow. Common cowhouse are two types.
One Row Cowhouse:
This cowhouse are made to keep a little amount of cow in a row. Partition are made to keep the cow separate from each other. The partition are 90 cm in length and 45 cm in height. Every cow needs 165 cm place for stand, 105 cm side space. The food pot should 75 cm and the channel 30 cm. Many place should made in this system according to the number of cows. The ceiling should one aloft and a height of 300 cm.
Two Row Cowhouse:
For farming many cows in a little space this types of house are made. In this method the cow can keep in
two ways, face to face and the exterior system. The cows stay in front of each other in face to face system. 120 cm space are there to feed the cow. 5.5 feet space for stand and 3.5 feet side space is required.
Food and water can serve in one time. More light is available for taking milk. Cow feel comfortable in its own place. Care taker can move easily.
A cow should serve food according to the method mentioned here. Green grass 20-30 kg, grainy food mixture 15-20% containing protein, for first 3 kg it should feed 3 kg after that 0.5 kg for per kg. Salt should provide 50-60 g and clean water as much as needed.
Without proper care rearing high species cow, it is not possible to keep the cow vigorous and healthy. As a result expected amount of milk and meat can not be gained. And the farming will be a non profitable business.
Milk should take once in dawn and another time in evening equally. Before milking the nipple and hand of the person should cleaned previously with water. Farmer can also use milking machine to collect milk.
To improve or develop the condition of cow it should meet reproduction with proper plan. The bull which mother, grandmother gives more milk, is best for artificial insemination. So when the cow want to meet, it should meet with a high productive bull.
Keeping Farm Record:
Determining profit and lose of farm depends on well keeping of income and expenditure. For proper management, plans and targets have to make first. It is a must to keep essential record like farm products accounting, sales, births, deaths and the correct information for the artificial breeding program.
Open House Methods:
In open space method 5-6 square meters space is required, 2.5-3 square meters for growing calf and 10-12 square meters for pregnant cow.
At last if you want to be success in dairy farming you have to take proper care of your cattle. They have to provide shelter, food, water and medicine according to their demands. Thus one farmer can be success.