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Coccidiosis: Bird Disease




  • Coccidiosis is a disease caused by the invasion of the digestive tract by microscopic single celled protozoan parasites, called Coccidia. Coccidia are almost ubiquitous parasites and rearing birds away from them is practically impossible. A mild coccidiosis infection, kept under control, is not very harmful and is actually necessary for creating immunity in replacement flocks. However, a severe attack of coccidiosis can cause great loss to poultry fanners due to mortality and morbidity. There are hundreds of types of Coccidia, but only few (of genuses Eimeria) ore important to poultry farmers. These include Elmeria, Lenella, E. necatrix, E. maxima, E. burnelli.

    Transmission:

    Coccidiosis spreads from bird to bird through eating or drinking contaminated food, water, litter or other material contaminated with Coccidia. Oocysts are carried mechanically by attendants, equipments, animals, wild birds or insects from place to place.

    Symptoms:

    Most of the external symptoms like ruffled feathers, unthrift ness paleness, loss of appetite and blood in droppings are the result of destruction of inner lining of intestine including cecae which hinders in the absorption of feed materials from gut to blood.

    Prevention and control:

    It is very difficulty to avoid contact of bird with Coccidia, hence the sound management practices should be followed to allow the birds to build up immunity and yet keep the disease under control. Feeding of law level of a good coccidiostat though has been found quite effective. Treatment: Several drugs are used in feed to treat coccidiosis may also be given in water as shown in table.

    Drugs

    Level

    Mod of Administration

    Sodium Sulphadimidine ( Sulmet of Canamide)

    0.2 % in drinking water

    3-2-3 interrupted schedule ( i.e. medicated water for 3 days, no drugs for 2 days and again medicated water for 3 days

    Sodium Sulphaquinoxaline ( Embazin of May and Baker)

    0.05 % in drinking water

    3-2-3 interrupted schedule for E. Tenella

    Nitrofurazone soluble ( Bifuran of Smith Kline and French )

    0.011% in drinking water

    3-2-3-2-3 interrupted schedule fro E. necatrix 7 days continuous

    Amprosol ( Merek )

    30 g in 20 liter water

    6 days continuous

    Sulphadimethoxine ( Agribon of Roche)

    0.05 % in drinking water

    7 days continuous

     

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