Thursday , August 17 2017
Home / Articles / Horticulture Industry / Onion, Introduction and importance

Onion, Introduction and importance




  • Onion (Allium cepa L) is one of the important condiments widely used in all households all the year round. The green leaves and immature and mature bulbs are eaten raw or used in preparation of vegetables. Onions are used in soups, sauces and for seasoning foods. The small bulbs one pickled in vinegar. Recent research has suggested that onions in the diet may play a part in preventing heat disease and other ailments. Onion bulb is rich in phosphorus, calcium and carbohydrates. The pungency in onion is due to a volatile oil known as allyl-propyl disulphide.

     

    Onion (Allium cepa L) is one of the important condiments widely used in all households all the year round. The green leaves and immature and mature bulbs are eaten raw or used in preparation of vegetables. Onions are used in soups, sauces and for seasoning foods. The small bulbs one pickled in vinegar. Recent research has suggested that onions in the diet may play a part in preventing heat disease and other ailments. Onion bulb is rich in phosphorus, calcium and carbohydrates. The pungency in onion is due to a volatile oil known as allyl-propyl disulphide.

    Trends, area, production and yield

    Onion is an important crop in all continents with world production of about 25 million tonnes. There has been a progressive increase in area and production of onion in Pakistan. In 1998-99, the area increased to 84.3 thousand hectare, production 1138.2 thousand tonnes and yield was 13.5 tonnes/ha. The data since 1993-94 one as follows.

    Table – 1:    Area, production and yield of onion in Pakistan (1993-94 to 1998-99)

    Year

    Area

    (000 ha)

    Production

    (000 tonnes)

    Yield

    (t/ha)

    1993-94

    70.3

    911.5

    13.0

    1994-95

    74.8

    1013.1

    12.8

    1995-96

    77.9

    1097.6

    14.1

    1996-97

    80.8

    1131.0

    14.0

    1997-98

    81.4

    1076.5

    13.2

    1998-99

    84.3

    1138.2

    13.5

    The average shares of the provinces in the over all area and production of onion, based on the data of 1998-99 crop are given in the following table.

    Table -2: Shares of provinces in area and production of onion (1998-99)

    Province

    Area

    Production

    000,ha

    percent share

    000, tonnes

    Percent Share

    Punjab

    22.2

    26.3

    230.8

    20.3

    Sindh

    34.5

    40.9

    457.0

    40.1

    NWFP

    6.9

    8.2

    120.5

    10.6

    Baluchistan

    20.7

    24.6

    329.9

    29.0

    Pakistan

    84.3

    100.0

    1138.2

    100

    Production zones/cropping pattern

    The major onion growing districts are Kasur, Gujranwala, Sheikhupura, Vehari, Khaneawal, D.G. Khan, and Jhang in Punjab, Hyderabad, Mirpurkhas, Sanghar, Sukkar, N. Feroze and Badin in Sindh, Swat in NWFP and Mastung, Kalat, Chagai, Khuzdar and Turbat in Baluchistan. These 21 districts account for more than 76 percent of the total production of onion in Pakistan. More than 50 percent of the total production comes from seven districts namely Hyderabad, Mirpurkhas, Sanghar, Swat, Mastung, Kalat and Turbat.

    Planting and Harvesting times of Onion 

    Province

     

    Nursery Sowing

    Transplanting

    Harvesting

    Punjab

    October/November

    December/January

    May-June

    NWFP

    October

    December/January

    June/Jully

    Sindh

    (Lower Sindh)

    July-August

    September/October

    January/February

    (Uper Sindh)

    October

    December/January

    April/May

    Balochistan

    February-March

    (Direct Seeding)

    August-Nov.

    Production technology and recommendation for enhancing production

    Nursery raising, transplanting and spacing:

    For production of seedlings, seed is sown in seedbeds 6-10 weeks before transplanting in the field. Onions are transplanted into the field 10cm between the plants and 20 to 25 cm apart in rows.

    Manuring and Fertilizing:

    Well-rotten farm yard manure @ 25-35 tonnes/ha should be ploughed under during land preparation at least one month before bed preparation. Before transplanting, 70-80 kg of phosphorus, 50 kg of Nitrogen and 50 kg of Potash per hectare should be thoroughly mixed in the soil. This should be followed with a supplementary dose of 50 kg of nitrogen per hectare at the time of bulb formation.

    Irrigation:

    The first watering is given immediately after sowing and transplanting. Afterwards subsequent irrigations should be given at 7-10 days interval. The watering should be discontinued before neckfall.

    Hoeing and Weeding:

    As soon as the young plants have become established in the field, they should be hoed for he control of weeds. Three to four hoeing are necessary for controlling weeds.

    Harvesting and Curing:

    Onion bulbs should be harvested after 75% of the crop have shown neckfall. Onion bulbs may be left on the surface of the ground for field curing until tops one fully dry. Three to four days field curing is desirable to improve the storage life of onion. One to two centimeters of the top is usually left on the bulbs to prevent entrance of disease organisms.

    Province

    Varieties

    Sind

    i) Phulkara

    Punjab

    i)  Desi Red

    Balochistan

    i)  Sariab Red

    ii) Chiltan – 89

    NWFP

    i) Swat – 1

    About admin

    Check Also

    Spawn Production Technology – Mushroom Farming

    Report Issue: * Suggest Edit Copyright Infringment Claim Article Invalid Contents Broken Links Your Name: …

    Leave a Reply

    Be the First to Comment!

    Notify of
    avatar
    wpDiscuz