Muhammad Shakeeb Umera, Haseeb Islama, Hafiz Muhammad Bilala*, Haya Fatimab, Hafiza Tayyba Manzoorc
- Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha.
- Department of Zoology, Government College Women University Faisalabad.
- Department of Zoology, The University of Lahore.
Flowers are the integral part of human civilization and culture. Floriculture is the study of flowers and its maintenance. Among all the flowers roses has it prominent position. Rose is one of the most attractive flower in floriculture industry. It also known as the queen of the flowers. It is the source of mentally satisfaction also symbol of friendliness and love. Roses are very old human beings friend due to its very strong aesthetics value. It cultivate almost more than 2500 years. Most of its species are native to Asia and some are belong to North west Africa, Europe and North America. Rose belong to family Rosacea, genus Rosa and genus rosa is further sub divided into 4 sub genra. Rose contain more than 200 species and 18000 cultivars.
Rose play an important role in almost all functions. It add its beauty in your decoration. Mostly in all functions roses are displayed for various decorative functions. Rose is also very important ornamental plant due to their varieties of color in flowers for both indoor and outdoor use. Roses are also cultivated for commercial purpose such as cut flower, perfumery industries, etc. For cut flower mostly it cut at bud stage and held at refrigerated condition until the time of sale.
Roses are best grown in tropical regions but it also grow in temperate region in green houses by maintaining the temperature and grow in warmer condition under cover to prevent flowers by high temperature and insects, pest. Pakistan also has great potential for the production of roses due to their climatic condition. In Punjab roses are cultivated on 1300 acre of land. The success of ornamental industry is depend upon the quality and quantity of its final products that depends upon several factors such as climate, cultural practices. Provision of balanced nutrients gives the better result in both quality and quantity. Netherland, France and Germany earn more due to their favorable environments and low production cost. Now a day’s study of plant breeding is very well working in all over the world. Plants breeders not only develop agronomy crop cultivars but also they develop flowering plants having desirable character according to climate. Rose is 3rd most cultivated flower in the world, the total worth of rose is almost US $ 11 billion per year.
Pakistan earn $0.72 million by exporting rose flowers during 1997-1998 In the total cut flowers production rose gives 33% of its shear. With the advances of science another technique is introduced in horticulture that is soil less culture (hydroponics). It solve many problems such as soil borne diseases, salinity, incest’s etc. This technique not only related to protect from disease but also related to increase yield. In this culture grower can harvest better quality stem continuously. Mostly it is use in Europe for cut flower production. For better production and quality of flowers, roses require balanced nutritional dose. 16 essential elements are require for the better development and for the completion of life cycle. In these 16 elements some are require in large quantity and some are require in low quantity.
According to the base of requirements of elements to the plant they are divided in to groups Macronutrients and Micronutrients. Macronutrients include Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Potassium, Phosphorus, Calcium, Magnesium and Sulphur. In these macro nutrients Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium are also known as primary elements and next 3 Calcium, Magnesium and Sulpher are known as secondary elements. While Micronutrients include Copper, Zinc, Iron, Molybdenum, Manganese, Chlorine, Boron, Cobalt and Nickel.
These all are necessary for the life cycle of plants and every nutrients play their role such as foliar spray of N increase the yield and fruit sett in avocado.
Nitrogen absorb in the form of ammonium ions from air. Phosphorus is present in ATP that is an organic compound and provide energy to the plant. Phosphorus is absorb by plants in the form of phosphate ion. Potassium involve in photosynthesis, enzymes activation and transport of nutrients and sugar. Potassium absorb in the form of potash ion. Calcium involve in cell division and absorb by plants in the form of calcium ion. Calcium is necessary for the development of resistant against bacterial wilt. Gypsum is the source of calcium. Magnesium is involve in osmatic potential. Sulpher is essential for chlorophyll formation and absorb by plants in the form of sulphate ion. Zinc is required for the synthesis of tryptophan which is the precursor of IAA, it also play important role in the synthesis of growth harmone Auxin.
Boron is essential elements for physiological functioning of higher plants. Boron is absorb by plants in the form of borate ion. Foliar application of B is best for flower production, fruit setting and fruit quality. Copper also involve in the formation of chlorophyll. Iron involved in DNA synthesis, respiration and photosynthesis. Iron is essential for all organism and its deficiency cause problems. Manganese involve in oxidation reduction process and can enhance or reduce the photosynthesis rate. Molybdenum is requiring by microorganism for nitrogen fixation in soil. Chlorine involve in photosynthesis also increases cell osmotic pressure and water content of plant tissue.
Pakistani soils mostly have high pH value that not show the absorption of micronutrients. Due to high pH value of soils the soil application of fertilizers is not very effective that why foliar application is prefer then the soil application. Due to this problems foliar application of fertilizer is very effective method because it also prevent the micronutrients from soil fixation. Foliar application is also very efficient due to less amount of solution is use and sufficient result is provided. Foliar application is 6-20% better then soil application by increasing crop production and other parameters.
Many researches have been conducted to check the response of different flower crop against the foliar application of micro and macronutrients and result proves that the foliar application is effective method for fertilization because it increased the physiological and productive process. Now a days this technique is more use for fulfil the nutritional deficiency in less time as compare to the soil application. Most of the agencies are recommend the foliar application instead of soil application, while soil application is the basic method of fertilization. With the advantage of foliar application also some disadvantage such as fertilizer that is apply through foliar method is must be fully mix with water because if apply in higher concentration then it burn the plants.