Maturity can be described as the attainment of the particular size or stage after which ripening takes place.

On the other hand, ripening means the qualitative changes in fruits after maturity of which it become edible.

Various Maturity Indices are:

i) Number of days from fruit set,
ii) Visual indicators,
iii) Size of fruits,
iv) Shape of fruit,
v) Colour of fruit,
vi) Appearance (External) 
vii) Texture
viii) Lenticel number
ix) Specific gravity
x) Starch Content
xi) Soluble solids
xii) Sugar acid ratio
xiii) Oil content

These indices are used to determination of fruits, Bhatnagar and Suramanyam ( 1971) reported that in Mango varieties – Alphanso and Pairi it took 110 to 125 days after fruit set for surface colour to change from dark green to olive green and flesh colour from white to pale yellow. Haden mangos are ready for picking at 1.02 specific gravity. The general practice mango observed in this process is known as TAPKA. The stage of maturity of Banana is determined by experience and judged largely by the visual appearances of the hanging branch and particularly by angularity of the individual banana fingers.

Harvest Indices:

The quality of fruits and vegetable cannot be improved but it can be presented when harvesting is done at proper stage of maturity. Immature fruits when harvested will give poor quality and erratic ripening.

In some cases, if the produce is to shipped to distant markets, or stored, to wait for a better price, it should be picked in the mature but unripe stage. Here lies the difficulty, because unlike the ripening stage, the boundary between pre maturation and maturation stage is hard to detect. No prominent changes in firmness or colour are evident often harvest indices becomes allitrary and subjective.

Original Article Here

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