King Of Fruits Mango
Below are some interesting facts of mangoes which have been gathered over the years.
The mango is known as the ‘king of fruit’ throughout the world.
The Mango is a member of the cashew family of flowering plants; other species include the pistachio tree and poison ivy.
The name ‘mango’ is derived from the Tamil word ‘mangkay’ or ‘man-gay’. When the Portuguese traders settled in Western India they adopted the name as ‘manga’.
Mangos originated in East India, Burma and the Andaman Islands bordering the Bay of Bengal. Persian traders took the mango into the middle east and Africa, from there the Portuguese brought it to Brazil and the West Indies. Mango cultivars arrived in Florida in the 1830’s and in California in the 1880’s.
The Mango tree is a symbol of love.
Mango leaves are used at weddings to ensure the couple bear plenty of children (though it is only the birth of the male child that is celebrated – again by hanging mango leaves outside the house).
Many Southeast Asian kings and nobles had their own mango groves; with private cultivars being sources of great pride and social standing, hence began the custom of sending gifts of the choicest mangoes.
Burning of mango wood, leaves and debris is not advised – toxic fumes can cause serious irritation to eyes and lungs.
Mango leaves are considered toxic and can kill cattle or other grazing livestock.
Mangos are bursting with protective nutrients. The vitamin content depends upon the variety and maturity of the fruit, when the mango is green the amount of vitamin C is higher, as it ripens the amount of beta carotene (vitamin A) increases.
There are over 20 million metric tons of mangos grown throughout the tropical and sub-tropical world. The leading mango producer is India, with very little export as most are consumed within the country. Mexico and China compete for second place, followed by Pakistan and Indonesia. Thailand, Nigeria, Brazil, Philippines and Haiti follow in order.
The fruit of the mango is called a Drupe – consisting of the mesocarp (edible fleshy part) and endocarp (large woody, flattened pit).
The mango is a member of the Anachardiaceae family. Other distant relatives include the cashew, pistachio, Jamaica plum, poison ivy and poison oak.
The over 1,000 known mango cultivars are derived from two strains of mango seed – monoembryonic (single embryo) and polyembryonic (multiple embryo). Monoembryonic hails from the Indian (original) strain of mango, polyembryonic from the Indochinese.
Dermatitis can result from contact with the resinous latex sap that drips from the stem end when mangos are harvested. The mango fruit skin is not considered edible.
Every part of the mango is beneficial and has been utilized in folk remedies in some form or another. Whether the bark, leaves, skin or pit; all have been concocted into various types of treatments or preventatives down through the centuries. A partial list of the many medicinal properties and purported uses attributed to the mango tree are as follows: anti-viral, anti-parasitic, anti-septic, anti-tussive (cough), anti-asthmatic, expectorant, cardiotonic, contraceptive, aphrodisiac, hypotensive, laxative, stomachic (beneficial to digestion)….
Mangiferin – rich in splenocytes, found in the stem bark of the mango tree has purported potent immunomodulatory characteristics – believed to inhibit tumor growth in early and late stages.
Mangoes contain as much vitamin C as an orange.
To choose a Mango gently squeeze the ‘nose’ of the fruit. If there is slight give then the mango is ripe. Color is not the best indicator of ripeness.
A Mango stored at 55 degrees will last for up to two weeks. Do not refrigerate.
Types of Mangoes
The Indo-Pakistan mangoes are monoembryonic and seedlings differ invariably from each other. The wide variations among the seedling progeny have been responsible for the evolution of several choice varieties in both the countries which have been further multiplied by vegetative means and grown on large scale. These varieties have thus been called as “Horticulture Varieties”. That is how a large number of standard varieties have come onto being and is cultivated in the different parts of Indo-Pakistan. The varietal nomenclature is so much confusing that one variety carries many names at various places and some cases on name is applied to several varieties.
We are Preparing the list of Types of Mangoes. There are 450 known Varieties of Mangoes in Pakistan. We are listing them with their History & Variety Owner.
It has originated as a superior chance seedling near Benares. Size medium to large, ovate, base round to slightly flatten, shoulders equal. Beak minute but distinct, sinus slight to absence, skin green and thin, flesh fibreless, yellowish brown in color, scented, highly melting, very sweet. Stone very small, flattened, oval. Weight of an average fruit is about ¼ kg. Fruit quality very good, bearing heavy. Season (Early to mid Season). 1st to 3rd week of July. Heavy yielder.
It derives its name form village between Lucknow and Malihabad where it was originated as a superior chance seedling. Size small to medium, oblong, ventral, shoulder higher than dorsal, beak and sinus absent, color yellow when ripe, skin thin, pulp fibreless, flesh firm, very sweet, flavor nice. Stone very small, oblong, variety good to very best, bearing heavy, mid season (July), keeping and peeling quality good.
This is a leading commercial variety of Bombay State and is one of the best in India. Because of its better adaptability to humid climate it has not been able to maintain its esteemed position in the dry districts of Pakistan. The Alphanso is successful in some districts of Sindh. Size medium, ovate, oblique, base obliquely flattened, Ventral structure boarder and much higher than dorsal, beak just a point, sinus not prominent, color of the ripe fruit yellow or brownish yellow, skin thin, pulp yellowish brown, flesh firm, taste very sweet, flavor excellent, almost fibreless. Fruit quality is good. Mid season variety harvested in July.
It has originated as a superior chance seedling in Muzaffernager U.P. It got its name because of its pleasant flavor. Fruit medium, base slightly flattened, shoulders equal, sinus very light, beak point prominent, skin greenish yellow, thin, pulp yellow, very sweet, sparsely fibrous, flavor pleasant to delicious. Stone medium and oblong, oval. Quality of the fruit is very good, keeping and peeling qualities well. Ripening season July-August.
It has originated as superior chance seedling in Bihar and gor its name after the name of lady Fajri who selected and brought up its trees. Size big, oblong, obliquely oval, base rounded, shoulder unequal, with ventral higher than the dorsal, beak distinct, sinus very shallow with rounded apex. Skin thin, pulp color pale, fibreless, taste sweet with pleasant flavor. Juice moderate to abundant. Stone large, oblong. Fruit quality good to very good bearing late season August, Keeping quality good.
Size small to medium, skin thick, yellow brown, pulp sweet, juicy, stone medium sized, fiber very little. Very hard variety. Season early August.
SAMMAR BAHISHT CHAUSA
It is originated as choicest seedling in a village Chausa in Malihabad, Tehsil of Lucknow. It is also known as “Kajri” or “Khajri”. There is resemblance between the foliage of Fajri and this variety but there are marked difference in fruit shape and quality. Fruit medium to large ovate to oval, base obliquely flattened, ventral shoulder raised than the dorsal, beak distinct, sinus shallow, apex round, skin medium in thickness, smooth, flesh firm, fibreless with pleasant flavor and sweet taste. Juice moderately abundant. Stone somewhat large oblong. Fruit quality good, bearing heavy, keeping quality medium to good. Ripening season in August (late).
RATAUL (ANWA R)
It has originated as a chance seedling in “Shohra-e-Afaq” Garden in Rataul. Now is has become popular in mango growing areas of Punjab because of its high flavor. Fruit medium, ovate, base flattened with equal shoulders, which are rounded, beak not prominent, absent in some cases, sinus absent, and apex round. Skin medium thick. Flesh firm, fibreless, flavor very pleasant, with very sweet taste. Juice moderately abundant. Some medium oval. Fruit quality very good. Ripening season in July (Mid-Season). Keeps well in storage.
It is a leading variety of Sindh. Fruit shape ovalish long. Size big, length 15 cm, breadth 8 cm. Thickness 7.4 cm. Weight 14.0 oz. Base obliquely rounded, cavity absent, Ventral shoulder rising and round, dorsal ending in a curve. Skin color lemon yellow when ripe. Surface smooth. Pulp color Yellowish cadium. Texture fine and firm fibreless. Stone medium size. Flavor pleasantly aromatic, taste sweet. Heavy yielder, early season.
Another variety of Sindh. Fruit shape is obliquely oval, Size is big, length about 14 cm. Breadth 9.1 cm Thickness 8.2 cm. Weight 22.0 oz. Base obliquely flattened. Cavity not prominent. Stalk inserted obliquely. Shoulders ventral typically razed, broader and much more higher than dorsal. Back almost rounded. Skin color dark green and glazy when unripe. Yellowish light green with very light crimson patches when ripe. Surface smooth, shining. Dots small distinct. Glands small, crowded.
Quality variety of Sindh. Fruit shape ovate, size small, length 7.7cm breath 5.9cm thickness 5.6cm weight 5.0oz. The base is rounded. Stalk inserted squarely. Cavity slight to absent, Shoulders unequal. Ventral is higher than dorsal, back rounded. Sinus slight to shallow, Beak acute to obtuse. Apex rounded, Skin color sea green when unripe & yellow with reddish tinge when ripe. Surface smooth. Small dots with numerous small glands.