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Garlic : Introduction




  • Garlic is the second most widely used cultivated Allium after onion. It has long been recognized all over the world as a valuable spice for foods and a popular remedy for various ailments and physiological disorders. It is grown throughout Pakistan and consumed by most of the people. It is used all over the world for flavouring various dishes.  

    Introduction

    Garlic is the second most widely used cultivated Allium after onion. It has long been recognized all over the world as a valuable spice for foods and a popular remedy for various ailments and physiological disorders. It is grown throughout Pakistan and consumed by most of the people. It is used all over the world for flavouring various dishes. 

    Trends, area, production and yield

    There has been a progressive increase in area and production of garlic in Pakistan. In 2004-05, the area increased to 6.6 thousand hectares, production 55.9 thousand tonnes and yield was 8.5 tonnes /ha. The data since 1999-00 are as follows. 

    Table 2. Area, production and yield of garlic in Pakistan (1999-00 to 2004-05) 

    Year 

     

    Area 

    (000 ha) 

    Production 

    (000 tonnes) 

    Yield 

    (t/ha) 

    1999-00 

    8.6 

    76.3 

    8.8 

    2000-01 

    7.9 

    63.9 

    8.1 

    2001-02 

    7.0 

    56.6 

    8.1 

    2002-03 

    7.0 

    57.7

    8.2

    2003-04

    6.9

    56.5

    8.3

    2004-05

    6.6

    55.9

    8.5

    The average shares of the provinces in the over all area and production of garlic, based on the data of 2004-05, are given in the

    following table 3.

    Table 3. Shares of provinces in area and production of garlic (2004-05)

    Province

    Area

    Production

    000,ha

    percent share

    000, tonnes

    Percent Share

    Punjab

    2.7

    41

    22.7

    40

    Sindh

    1.7

    25

    8.2

    15

    NWFP

    2.0

    30

    22.8

    41

    Balochistan

    0.2

    4

    2.2

    4

    Pakistan

    6.6

    100

    55.9

    100

    Average bulb yield of garlic is about 6 to 10 tonnes/hectare in different areas of Pakistan(table 4). Average yield (tonnes/ha) is more in NWFP and Punjab as compared to Sindh and Balochistan.

    Table 4. Area and production of garlic crop in Pakistan

    Province

    Area (000 hectare)

    Production (000 tonnes)

    Average Yield (tonnes/ha)

    2003-04

    2004-05

    2003-04

    2004-05

    2003-04

    2004-05

    Punjab

    2.7

    2.7

    22.9

    22.7

    8.5

    8.4

    Sindh

    2.0

    1.7

    9.7

    8.2

    4.5

    4.8

    NWFP

    2.0

    2.0

    22.3

    22.8

    11.2

    11.4

    Baluchistan

    0.2

    0.2

    1.6

    2.2

    8.0

    11.0

    Pakistan

    6.9

    6.6

    56.5

    55.9

    8.2

    8.5

    Time of planting and method of sowing

    Garlic is planted as single clove but bulbils are also used occasionally. In hilly area, this crop is planted in March-April whereas in plains; it is planted from September to October.

    The quantity of planting material required per unit area depends on clove size and number of cloves per bulb. A distance of 15 to 20 cm (row to row) and 8 to 10 cm (plant to plant) is recommended.

    Manuring and fertilizer requirement

    Garlic responds very well to organic manure, application of 16-20 tonnes/acre at the time of field preparation is recommended. Application of N:P:K @ 75:85:55 kg produces higher yield. At the time of planting, half of nitrogen along with full dose of P and K should be used, the remaining half of nitrogen be applied 30-45 days after planting.

    Irrigation and inter-culture

    Garlic crop needs irrigation once in a week during vegetative growth and at 10-15 days interval near maturation. Garlic is a closely planted crop which requires 3-5 manual hoeing for higher yield.

    Harvesting
    The crop is ready for harvest when the tops turn brownish and show signs of drying up and bend over. The bulbs mature in 4-6 months after plantation depending upon the climate.

    Import, export and whole sale prices

    Data regarding import/export and prices are presented in table 6 and 7.

    Table 6. Import and export of garlic crop

    Year

    Export

    Import

    Quantity (Tonnes)

    Value (000 Rs.)

    Quantity (tonnes)

    Value (000 Rs.)

    2002-03

    2003-04

    681

    11720

    31570

    482285

    2004-05

    51

    1005

    51030

    1074023

    Fruit, vegetable and condiments statistics of Pakistan 1998-99 (MINFAL, March, 2000)

    Table 7. Monthly whole- sale prices (Rs./40 kgs) of garlic during 2005 in main markets

    Months

    Lahore

    Hyderabad

    Peshawar

    Quetta

    January

    1620

    1000

    1380

    845

    February

    1610

    1000

    1390

    845

    March

    1128

    840

    1502

    April

    995

    748

    1670

    793

    May

    1195

    929

    1528

    817

    June

    1379

    1004

    1600

    900

    July

    1539

    1050

    1495

    900

    August

    1547

    1313

    1540

    900

    September

    1636

    1450

    1400

    900

    October

    1680

    1410

    1400

    900

    November

    December

    Average.

    1433

    1074

    1491

    867

    Storage
    Garlic bulbs can be best stored for 3-4 months in well ventilated room.

    Key Reference : parc.gov.pk


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