Garlic is the second most widely used cultivated Allium after onion. It has long been recognized all over the world as a valuable spice for foods and a popular remedy for various ailments and physiological disorders. It is grown throughout Pakistan and consumed by most of the people. It is used all over the world for flavouring various dishes.  

Introduction

Garlic is the second most widely used cultivated Allium after onion. It has long been recognized all over the world as a valuable spice for foods and a popular remedy for various ailments and physiological disorders. It is grown throughout Pakistan and consumed by most of the people. It is used all over the world for flavouring various dishes. 

Trends, area, production and yield

There has been a progressive increase in area and production of garlic in Pakistan. In 2004-05, the area increased to 6.6 thousand hectares, production 55.9 thousand tonnes and yield was 8.5 tonnes /ha. The data since 1999-00 are as follows. 

Table 2. Area, production and yield of garlic in Pakistan (1999-00 to 2004-05) 

Year 

 

Area 

(000 ha) 

Production 

(000 tonnes) 

Yield 

(t/ha) 

1999-00 

8.6 

76.3 

8.8 

2000-01 

7.9 

63.9 

8.1 

2001-02 

7.0 

56.6 

8.1 

2002-03 

7.0 

57.7

8.2

2003-04

6.9

56.5

8.3

2004-05

6.6

55.9

8.5

The average shares of the provinces in the over all area and production of garlic, based on the data of 2004-05, are given in the

following table 3.

Table 3. Shares of provinces in area and production of garlic (2004-05)

Province

Area

Production

000,ha

percent share

000, tonnes

Percent Share

Punjab

2.7

41

22.7

40

Sindh

1.7

25

8.2

15

NWFP

2.0

30

22.8

41

Balochistan

0.2

4

2.2

4

Pakistan

6.6

100

55.9

100

Average bulb yield of garlic is about 6 to 10 tonnes/hectare in different areas of Pakistan(table 4). Average yield (tonnes/ha) is more in NWFP and Punjab as compared to Sindh and Balochistan.

Table 4. Area and production of garlic crop in Pakistan

Province

Area (000 hectare)

Production (000 tonnes)

Average Yield (tonnes/ha)

2003-04

2004-05

2003-04

2004-05

2003-04

2004-05

Punjab

2.7

2.7

22.9

22.7

8.5

8.4

Sindh

2.0

1.7

9.7

8.2

4.5

4.8

NWFP

2.0

2.0

22.3

22.8

11.2

11.4

Baluchistan

0.2

0.2

1.6

2.2

8.0

11.0

Pakistan

6.9

6.6

56.5

55.9

8.2

8.5

Time of planting and method of sowing

Garlic is planted as single clove but bulbils are also used occasionally. In hilly area, this crop is planted in March-April whereas in plains; it is planted from September to October.

The quantity of planting material required per unit area depends on clove size and number of cloves per bulb. A distance of 15 to 20 cm (row to row) and 8 to 10 cm (plant to plant) is recommended.

Manuring and fertilizer requirement

Garlic responds very well to organic manure, application of 16-20 tonnes/acre at the time of field preparation is recommended. Application of N:P:K @ 75:85:55 kg produces higher yield. At the time of planting, half of nitrogen along with full dose of P and K should be used, the remaining half of nitrogen be applied 30-45 days after planting.

Irrigation and inter-culture

Garlic crop needs irrigation once in a week during vegetative growth and at 10-15 days interval near maturation. Garlic is a closely planted crop which requires 3-5 manual hoeing for higher yield.

Harvesting
The crop is ready for harvest when the tops turn brownish and show signs of drying up and bend over. The bulbs mature in 4-6 months after plantation depending upon the climate.

Import, export and whole sale prices

Data regarding import/export and prices are presented in table 6 and 7.

Table 6. Import and export of garlic crop

Year

Export

Import

Quantity (Tonnes)

Value (000 Rs.)

Quantity (tonnes)

Value (000 Rs.)

2002-03

2003-04

681

11720

31570

482285

2004-05

51

1005

51030

1074023

Fruit, vegetable and condiments statistics of Pakistan 1998-99 (MINFAL, March, 2000)

Table 7. Monthly whole- sale prices (Rs./40 kgs) of garlic during 2005 in main markets

Months

Lahore

Hyderabad

Peshawar

Quetta

January

1620

1000

1380

845

February

1610

1000

1390

845

March

1128

840

1502

April

995

748

1670

793

May

1195

929

1528

817

June

1379

1004

1600

900

July

1539

1050

1495

900

August

1547

1313

1540

900

September

1636

1450

1400

900

October

1680

1410

1400

900

November

December

Average.

1433

1074

1491

867

Storage
Garlic bulbs can be best stored for 3-4 months in well ventilated room.

Key Reference : parc.gov.pk


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