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Effects Of Sucking And Chewing Insect Pest On Citrus Industry In Pakistan




  • Citrus fruit grown in Pakistan is considered to be the most important for better economic earning and its dietetic value. Citrus has generally been a source of foreign exchange earnings and its domestic need is also growing in the country. Area under citrus is increasing substantially every year but production is increasing at a very low rate. The production of citrus was consistent from 1994 to 1998. The fruit yield during 1994-95 was 10,135.0 kg per hectare and after five years (in 1999-2000) it fell down to 9,829.0 kg. In Pakistan, average productivity is 9.5 tons per hectare which is very low as compared with developed countries like United States, Japan and Australia. In developed countries average yield is approximately 40 tons per hectare there are a number of obstacles in obtaining higher yield of citrus. It is generally thought that the primary factor responsible for decrease in citrus production and quality is attack of different sucking and chewing insect pests which reduced its yield.

                Pakistan is competitor country in citrus exporting and citrus producing countries. Pakistan was at 20th ranking in 2011 of the world in citrus producing country as compare to other countries. If we saw this in past Pakistan was ranked 9th in 1992. There are a lot of stresses which is coming on citrus industry Pakistan. By whom we are going back if we do comparison with others countries of world like Brazil, China, U.S. etc. They day by day promote citrus industry in ratings high. Pakistan country facing so much stresses like lagging behind the modern techniques, only 10%citrus is exported in other countries.

                There are number of chewing pest which attack on citrus plants and cause severe damage to plants and fruit. Some of these insect are as follow. Citrus leaf miner, Light brown apple moth, Lemon butterfly, Weevils and Thrips. In citrus industry insects pest play a major role to make decrease the production of citrus. They have ability to destroy the all orchards by sucking them or by chewing them or by to transmit the diseases. Sucking insect pest make a great stress on citrus plant they do two types of things.

                All above these sucking insects do a lot economic losses in citrus due to their effects of damages include:

    (1)  By these damages increased cost for protection of nursery trees and young trees of citrus who can’t bear the stress of insects.

    (2)  Reduced sale to home gardeners.

    (3)  Increase orchard production costs by directly through pesticides spray or by treatments included biological control and integerated pest management programs. Except to those mature plants who cannot be control because foliage damage cannot came back.

    (4)  Less export to other countries of world.

    (5)  Former will not grow next time citrus and if citrus not grow in our country, peoples will buy the citrus in high rates.

                Due to all these damages problems and cost applies to recover the damage or to kill sucking insect pests have a great stress on citrus industry. There are so less in numbers of citrus who exported as compare to our production quantity. Formers can’t export the citrus in other countries due to not good quality .Quality deteriorated also by sucking insect pests. Because if sucking insects pest come on vigour plant and they get success in to make damage and to transmit disease in plant. The plant become non vigour and it will produce a fruit of not so much good quality. It is just a like a pregnant women if pregnant women have good health it is sure that her child will be healthy if she is not her child will be not.

                These different chewing insect have different way to cause damage to the plants. Citrus leaf miner formed galleries in the leaves by photosynthesis reduce which reduce the production of citrus. Light brown apple moth caterpillars produce a protective web under which they feed on leaves and on fruit and cause damage. The larvae of lemon butterfly chew the leaves very fast and cause severe damage to the plants by which the production of fruit effected. Other chewing insect pests also cause damage by different pattern and by all these chewing insects the yield of citrus reduced very much. By this reduction the farmer and the economy of country effected very much. Bye the chewing insect the quality of fruit effects very much due to which they are not able export.

                Be all the above information we conclude that sucking and chewing insect pests have great effect on the quality and yield of the citrus by which we are facing economic problem so we should use integrated pest management control for the chewing insects pest so we that we are able to save the economy of farmers. 

    Dr. Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1,3, Dr. Rashad Mukhtar Balal1,2, Dr. Muhammad Adnan Shahid1,2, Abdul Hannan1 and Ali Hassan1

    1 University College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Pakistan;

    2 Cornell University, NY, USA

    3 Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Ascot, SL5 7PY, U.K.

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