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Clonal Propagation of Guava Made Easy




  • Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is an important fruit because of its nutritional value and wide adaptability to varied soil and climatic conditions. However, guava does not lend itself easily to the various asexual propagation methods. The only method of its commercial propagation is through seed and it is for this reason that the standardization of its cultivars has not been possible.

    Introduction

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is an important fruit because of its nutritional value and wide adaptability to varied soil and climatic conditions. However, guava does not lend itself easily to the various asexual propagation methods. The only method of its commercial propagation is through seed and it is for this reason that the standardization of its cultivars has not been possible. Horticulturists in the subcontinent have tried different asexual methods for its propagation, using plant growth regulators, but have met with limited success. Therefore, NARC horticulturists addressed research on vegetative propagation of guava.

    Technology Development, Demonstration and Recommendation

    Although guava is hard to root, our 1988-2003 investigations indicated that it can beGuava_1 successfully propagated axesually. The use of stem cuttings is the least expensive method for vegetative propagation. Therefore, different types of cuttings were tried during different seasons of the year, using different root promoting plant growth regulators and rooting media under mist in the greenhouse. On the basis of our research local selections were made from guava growing areas of Punjab, NWFP and Sindh keeping in view the fruit size, colour, shape and seed to pulp ratio, taste and yield. True-to-type plants of selected cultivars and training in propagation were also provided to the fruit nurseries of Pattoki and Sharqpur (Punjab), Kohat (NWFP) and Larkana (Sindh). A clonal orchard (10 acres) of local and exotic cultivars was established at Sharqpur (Punjab). Now a commercial nursery has set a clonal guava nursery in that area as well. This research success has led to the establishment of true-to-type orchards of guava yielding high quality fruit for fresh consumption and processing industry.

    The Technology

    Shoot-tip cuttings (10-15 cm long with 4 leaves) of current season growth treatedGuava_2 with 12 ppm solution of Paclobutrazol (ICI Pakistan) give 90% rooting after 6 weeks when planted July-August in a coarse sand media under mist in the greenhouse with 80-85% relative humidity and 25-30 oC temperature, and natural day length. Similar results are obtained when 4000 ppm IBA was used keeping all the other conditions constant. Rooted cuttings are later shifted in polythene tubes containing a media mixture of soil, silt and well rotten manure in equal quantities and kept in the greenhouse for acclimatization.

    Key References

    Mukhtar A., I. Ahmed, M. H. Laghari, and Hidayatullah. (1998). Effect of growth regulators on rooting in softwood cuttings of guava under mist condition. Sarhad J. Agric. 14 (5):423-425.

    Hafeez U. R., M. A. Khan, K. M. Khokhar, and M. H. Laghari. (1991). Effect of season on rooting ability of tip cuttings of guava (Psidium guajava) treated with paclobutrazol. Indian Journal of Agric. Sci. 61(6): 404-406.


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