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Chilies: Introduction




  • Chilli (Capsicum annuum L) of family Solanaceae is both a vegetable and a spice crop of significant economic value in Pakistan. It is mainly used for flavouring and imparting the pungency to cooked vegetables and meal. It is a rich source of vitamin A and C. The area, production and average yield of chilies in Pakistan are given in table-I.  

    Introduction

    Chilli (Capsicum annuum L) of family Solanaceae is both a vegetable and a spice crop of significant economic value in Pakistan. It is mainly used for flavouring and imparting the pungency to cooked vegetables and meal. It is a rich source of vitamin A and C. The area, production and average yield of chilies in Pakistan are given in table-I.

    Trends, area, production and yield

    There has been a progressive decrease in area and production of chili in Pakistan. Since 1999-00 to 2004-05, the area under chili crop has decreased from 86.8 to 48.7 thousand hectares and production from 115.5 to 90.5 thousand tonnes. However, the average yield has increased from 1.3 to 1.9 tones /ha. The data since 1999-00 are as follows. 

    Table 1. Area, production and yield of chilies in Pakistan (1999-00 to 2004-05) 

    Year 

     

     

    Area 

    (000 ha) 

    Production 

    (000 tonnes)

    Yield

    (t/ha)

    1999-00

    86.8

    115.5

    1.3

    2000-01

    84.5

    174.6

    2.1

    2001-02

    48.7

    93.3

    1.9

    2002-03

    56.4

    98.9

    1.8

    2003-04

    55.8

    96.4

    1.7

    2004-05

    48.7

    90.5

    1.9

    Table 1. Area, production and yield of chilies in Pakistan (1999-00 to 2004-05)
    The average shares of the provinces in the over all area and production of chilli, based on the data of 2004-05, are given in the following table.

    Table 2. Shares of provinces in area and production of chilies (2004-05)

    Province

    Area

    Production

    000,ha

    percent share

    000, tonnes

    Percent Share

    Punjab

    5.2

    11

    8.5

    9

    Sindh

    40.5

    83

    77.7

    86

    NWFP

    0.7

    1

    0.8

    1

    Balochistan

    2.3

    5

    3.4

    4

    Pakistan

    48.7

    100

    90.5

    100

    The present national average yield of chilies is 1.9 tonnes/ha which is quite low. To obtain a potential yield, high yielding varieties and improved production technology have to be adopted.

    Growing Seasons
    Province wise nursery sowing and transplanting times of chilies are given

    Table 3. Province-wise nursery sowing and transplanting times


    Province             Nursery sowing time           Transplanting time               Harvesting time


    Punjab               1. Plains June to December

                              (i)   October                       February

    (ii)  February/March           April/May

    (iii)                                                              (iii)                                  March/April

    (direct sowing)

    2. Hilly Areas September to

    (i) April                            May/June                         December

    Sindh (i) December                   Last week of                     From April to August

    January

    (ii) January/                     March/April                       August to November

    February

    (iii) June/July                   July/August                      November/December

    (iv) September/                October/                           February to April

    October                     November

    NWFP (i) November                   February/                           June to November

    March

    Balochistan 1. Plains

    (i) October to                  February/April                    August to November

    February

    2. Uplands

    (i) April                           May to June                      Sep to December


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