Wednesday , October 18 2017

Horticulture




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    What is Horticulture? Horticulture is the industry and science of plant cultivation. Horticulturists work and conduct research in the disciplines of plant propagation and cultivation, crop production, plant breeding and genetic engineering, plant biochemistry, and plant physiology. The work particularly involves fruits, berries, nuts, vegetables, flowers, trees, shrubs, and turf. Horticulturists work to improve crop yield, quality, nutritional value, and resistance to insects, diseases, and environmental stresses.

    What is Horticulture? Horticulture is the industry and science of plant cultivation. Horticulturists work and conduct research in the disciplines of plant propagation and cultivation, crop production, plant breeding and genetic engineering, plant biochemistry, and plant physiology. The work particularly involves fruits, berries, nuts, vegetables, flowers, trees, shrubs, and turf. Horticulturists work to improve crop yield, quality, nutritional value, and resistance to insects, diseases, and environmental stresses.

    Abscission :The shedding of some part or structure, as a leaf or flower, as the result of the formation of a layer of loosely adhering cells at its base that breaks apart readily.

    Absorption :The process of taking up water and holding it in pores or open spaces, as a sponge.

    What is Horticulture..? :Horticulture is the industry and science of plant cultivation. Horticulturists work and conduct research in the disciplines of plant propagation and cultivation, crop production, plant breeding and genetic engineering, plant biochemistry, and plant physiology. The work particularly involves fruits, berries, nuts, vegetables, flowers, trees, shrubs, and turf. Horticulturists work to improve crop yield, quality, nutritional value, and resistance to insects, diseases, and environmental stresses.

    Abscission :The shedding of some part or structure, as a leaf or flower, as the result of the formation of a layer of loosely adhering cells at its base that breaks apart readily.

    Absorption :The process of taking up water and holding it in pores or open spaces, as a sponge.

    Accessory fruit :Those fruits in which major part of the ripened ovule are known as accessory fruit. False fruits like pine apple, strawberry, fig, etc. in pine apple the central portion is receptacle and is surrounded by pistils.

    Achene :Dry, unilocular, indehiscent fruit, seed-like in appearance, as the so-called ?seeds? of the strawberry.

    Adsorption :The adhesion of molecules of gases or dissolved substance to the surfaces of solid particles; distinguished from absorption, which is not a surface phenomenon.

    Aggregate fruits :An aggregate fruit is a fruit (mostly true) formed but remain attached to their main common stem as in the raspberry. The structure of such, flower is a single receptacle upon which are many small fruits. Examples are strawberry, raspberry dewberry, blackberry.

    Annuals :These are the plants that generally live for only one year or season and during the same year or season they produce vegetative growth bloom, produce seed and then die. This class includes many ornamental plants, most vegetables. Papaya is also a annual in Florida.

    Autogamy :When a flower is fertilized by its own pollen.

    Auxin :A substance synthesized by a plant and able to influence growth at some point other than the point of synthesis; comparable to a hormone in animals.

    Berry Fruits :A true botanical berry is a true or simple fleshy fruit that has seed embedded through the pulpy ovarian tissues. Most horticultural berries are not true botanical berries at all but custom has established such as raspberry, blueberry and strawberry etc.

    Biennials :The plants that make one season is growth, survive the winter in dormant condition and produce seed the second year are called Biennials examples are onion, cabbage, hollyhock, carrot, etc.

    Black nose :A disorder of certain fruits, especially pears, in which the apical fleshy tissues dry out, turn black and become hard and woody. Usually associated with drought in some form.

    Blackheart :A diseased condition of the woody tissues in which the inner layers become darkened in color, impregnated with certain substances and lose their ability to serve as conducting and storage tissues. Apparently caused by low winter temperatures.

    Capri fig :The wild or ?male? fig, the uncultivated form.

    Chlorosis :A diseased condition shown by loss of green color.

    Cleistogamy :Self pollination without the flower opening.

    Compatibility :(1) Of sex cells, the ability to unite and form a fertilized egg that can grow to maturity. (2) Congeniality as determined by the degree of success of the union between stock and scion.

    Crazy Top :A disorder of citrus trees associated with an alkaline soil reaction and resulting in a peculiar type of growth.

    Crinkle :A disorder of apples in which the surface of the fruit becomes roughened. Supposed to be a form of drought injury.

    Deciduous plants :which drop their leaves during winter.

    Dichogamy :Insuring cross fertilization by the sexes being developed at different times.

    Dicliny :Male and female organs separate and in different flowers.

    Dieback :A disorder of tree, bush and vine fruits characterized by killing back of the younger growth.Dioecious :Unisexual, the male and female elements in different individuals.

    Dormant :Applied to buds when they are not actively growing and to plants when they are not in leaf.Drupe (true fruits) :peach, berry, plum, apricot, almond.

    Drupe fruits :It is a true simple fruit having a single ovary of the flower. examples are stone fruits, olive, mango and .raspberry fruit let and coconut and walnut.

    Dry fruits :Which become dry or nearly so at maturity almond, walnut.

    Emasculation :The artificial removal of the stamens from the flower before they dehisence.

    Embryo Sac :The cell in the ovule in which the embryo is formed.

    Embryogenic :Pertaining to the development of the embryo.

    Endocarp :The inner layer of the wall of a fructified ovary.

    Evergreen trees :Which do not drop their leaves in winter i.e. citrus, mango, avocado, etc

    Exocarp :The outer layer of the wall of a fructified ovary.

    False fruit :It is a fruit which is composed of tissues in addition to those of the ovary as in apple, pear, strawberry, fig, loquat.

    Fecundation :The fusion of two gametes to form a new cell.

    Fertility :(1) Of flowers, the capacity of producing seeds that will germinate; (2) of soils, the crop producing power.

    Fertilization :(1) The fusion of two gametes to form a new cell; (2) the application of fertilizers.

    Fleshy fruits :Which are fleshy or somewhat succulent at maturity and other part or parts becomes dry or so. Examples are berry fruits, drupe, pome.

    Fruit Setting :A development of the ovary and adjacent tissues following the blossoming period.

    Fruitfulness :The capacity of producing fruit.

    Gamete :A unisexual cell which must fuse with another gamete to produce a new individual.

    Growth Regulator :Any substance or physical factor, either external or internal that influences a growth process; in a more restricted sense, a substance that influences growth.

    Gummosis :A disorder, particularly of stone and citrus fruits, in which there are copious exudations or deposits of gum.Herbaceous perennials :are those whose top die after a season growth but the crown and the roots remain alive through the conditions became favourable for growth. They store food in the underground parts.

    Hermaphrodite :A flower with both stamens and pistils.

    Hormone :A substance synthesized by an organisms that is able to influence growth at some point other than the point of synthesis; comparable to auxin in plants. Sometimes term is used in broad sense to include auxins.

    Hydrophyte :A plant that naturally grows in the water.

    Imbibition :The process of absorption, usually by a solid.

    Impotence :Inability to produce functional gametes of the one sex or the other; sometimes used in a more general sense to denote sterility.

    Incompatibility :Of sex cells, the inability to unite and form a fertilized egg that can grow to maturity.

    Interfruitfulness :The ability of one variety to set and mature seed-containing or seedless fruit when pollinized by a set of another varieties.

    June Drop :The abscission of partly developed fruit (often occur in June).

    Locule :The cavity of an anther or ovary.

    Mesophyte :A plant that grows naturally under conditions of moderate humidity, that neither requires nor will survive culture in water or extreme drought.

    Monoecious :The stamens and pistils in separate flowers but borne on the same individual.

    Multiple fruit :It is a false fruit that is formed when several adjacent flowers and their adjacent tissues unite to form a single fruit, as in pine apple, mulberry fig, & jack fruit.

    Parthenocarpy :The production of fruit without true fertilization.

    Parthenogenesis :The development of the unfertilized egg into the usual product of fertilization without union of gametes.

    Perennials :Perennials are herbaceous and woody. These are the plants that persist from year to year, often not producing seed for many years, but not usually dying immediately after seed production.

    Photoperidism :The influence of length of day on plant processes and structures.

    Photosynthesis :The synthesis of carbohydrates and other compounds out of simpler materials through the agency of chlorophyll in the presence of light.

    Phototropism :The influence of light on direction of growth.

    Pollination :The placing of pollen on the stigmatic surface.

    Pome (false fruits) :apple, pear, quince.

    Pome fruit :It is a false fruit in which the receptacle, calyx and other parts of the flower, are involved in its development. The carpals are two or more in no. the receptacle becomes fleshy and constitutes the edible portion. Examples are apple, pear, loquat, quince. In pomes the terms.Protandry :The pollen being discharged before the pistils are receptive.

    Protogyny :The pistils being receptive before the maturity of androcium.

    Sod Culture :A method of orchard soil management in which a permanent perennial crop is grown between the trees, mowed once or twice during the growing season and then allowed to remain on the ground. A limited area around the trees is hoed, spaded or otherwise tilled.

    Sporophyte :The plant in the alternating life cycle arising from a fertilized egg and producing spores.

    Sterility :The inability to produce seeds that will germinate.

    Sub-Tropical And Tropical Fruits: Those grown in hotter climate with cool or comparatively warm and short winters are grouped as sub-tropical and tropical fruits.

    Temperate Fruits :Fruits that can be grown commercially in cold regions are classed as temperate fruits (mostly deciduous).

    Tree Fruits :A class of fruit those grow on trees.

    True Fruits :True fruits are those which develop wholly from the tissues of a single ovary as in peach, plum, orange (simple fruits) and raspberry (aggregate).

    Water Berries :A disorder of the grape in which the fruits are watery and fail to ripen properly.

    Wilting Coefficient :The percentage of moisture in the soil when permanent wilting of plants takes place.

    Witches Broom :A disorder of the stem or its branches in which there is an extreme amount of branching, resulting in a very brushy condition. Sometimes caused by fungus attack.

    Wither Tip :A form of dieback reported from Australia as due to copper deficiency.

    Woody perennials :are the common fruit trees, shrubs, vines, etc. Trees have typical growth and a central stem or trunk. Each of the annual ring in wood of trees contributes to the body of the plant. Fruits, with the horticulturist, may be the addible product which in its development is closely associated with a flower.

    Xenia :The direct influence of foreign pollen on the part of the mother plant that develops into endosperm. Xerophyte. A plant that can endure extreme drought.

    Xerophyte :A plant that can endure extreme drought.

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