Thursday , November 23 2017

Forestry




  • What is farm forestry? Practice of forestry by the farmers on the farmland for obtaining numerous benefits such as wood, fuel and forage etc.

     

    What is farm forestry? Practice of forestry by the farmers on the farmland for obtaining numerous benefits such as wood, fuel and forage etc.

    Forest : A stable community of plants and animals dominated by woody vegetation.
    Forestry : Application of science on forest land for obtaining maximum sustained yield of timber, forage etc.
    Humus : Indisting washable biomass such as leaves, twigs lying on forest floor.
    Logging : Removing felled logs from the forest.
    Lopping : Removal of branches in order to use these without any regard to the health and vigour of standing tree stem.
    Pacing : Estimating a distance by walking and counting steps.
    Pollarding : Removal of branches in order to use these with due regard to survival and vigour of standing tree.
    Pruning : Removal of branches to improve the timber quality of standing tree.
    What is the renewable resource? Raw material that can be regenerated from a site again and again for ever under scientific management such as a forest.
    What is Staking? Arranging fire wood logs or sawn wood into standardized piles where it can be easily measured, seasoned or stored.
    Volume Tables : Tables that give volume of logs for different values of tree diameter and length.
    Rivarian Vegetation : Vegetation of a stream bank or of bela.
    Blaze : A mark placed on a standing tree to call special attention to the tree.
    Explain the Capacity grazing? In range management, the ability of a range unit, exclusive of severe drought years, to give adequate support to a constant number of live stock for a stated period each year without deteriorating with respect to this or other proper land use, expressed in number of livestock per acres of green kind or in number of acres per specified animals.
    What is Cateface? A sear on the surface of a log generally elliptical in shape, resulting from wounds which have not healed over, also a fire sear at the base of tree.
    Class age :One of the intervals into which the range of ages of vegetation is divided for classification and use.
    Biomass :Living as well as dead material of plant or animal origin.
    Browse :Woody vegetation having some forage value.
    What is dipping tank? A small tank where sheep etc are dipped to control skin parasites etc.
    How National forests are differ from National Park?National forests differ from National Parks in that recreation is not their only use, forest land, timber, wild life, recreation, grazing are compatible resources and these are managed for productive and sustained yields according to the land capability.
    What is PEN?A loose rectangular stack of fuel wood or pulpwood in layers of two pieces each lay at right angles to the ends of the previous two sticks. Pens vary in height and width.
    Mensuration Forest : A science dealing with the measurement of the volume, growth and development of individual trees and stands and determination of the various products obtainable from them.
    Percolation : The movement of water through the soil.
    What is A.U (Animal Unit)? A cow weighing about 500 kg and eats 10 kg of air-dry forage per day.
    What is the stocking rate of a range? a) Maximum number of animal unit that can be grazed in one hectare for one year. b) Minimum number of hectare required to feed one animal unit for one year.
    Forage : The plant material which is grazed by range livestock.
    What is nomadic grazing? Unmanaged grazing by the livestock of unsettled tribes, generally harmful to vegetation.
    Pasture : An irrigated or moist area supporting an excellent stand of vegetation suitable for grazing.
    Range : A vast area supporting natural vegetation which is suitable for grazing.
    Range Ecosystem : A site for grazing which is more or less independent of other adjoining communities, major outside inputs being solar radiation and precipitation.
    Range land : A piece of land which supports or suitable for grazing and browsing.
    Range management : Science and art of obtaining maximum production from grasslands on sustained basis.
    Steeping : An open tank treatment in which the wood is submerged usually in a water solution, for a period of time.
    Piling : Round timbers to be driven into the ground to support structures.
    Basin : An area less deep than wide and collects surplus rain water that drains into a lake or river.
    Catchments : An area that drains surplus rain water. It is because water holding capacity of the area is less that the amount of precipitation received.
    Command Area : area irrigated and cultivated by the water of a reservoir or canal.
    Convex Slope : A slope having an upward bulge.
    Concave Slope : A slope having a depression.

    Erosion : Dislodging, removal and loss of soil particles from original site to some where else by flowing water and strong winds.

    Bed load : Amount of course sediments and grovel that keep on rolling down along flowing water on stream bed.
    Gully : An unstable seasonal stream having turbulent flow and causing serious soil erosion. It is too big to be ploughed and obliterated.
    Head Works : Mansonary or concrete structure at the start of a canal to block and divert the direction of water flow.
    Kaffir Dam : A temporary dam for re-routing original stream flow to allow the construction of permanent dam.
    Rugged : Rough and uneven surface of soil, lacking gentleness.
    Rill : A small unstable seasonal streamlet which can be easily ploughed up and obliterated.
    Stripe Cropping : Cultivation of crops in strips of variable width along contour lines.
    What is WALDA? Watershed and Arid Lands Development Authority of Pakistan.
    Watershed Line : A line on the high-test ground that separates two adjoining watersheds.
    Watershed Management : Application of science for getting maximum yield of clean water on sustained basis or multiplication of hydro logical cycle to serve best interest of man.
    Weir : A thin metal structure across a stream for retaining and measuring flow of water.
    Ratton : New shoots springing from old roots of plants such as sugar cane crop.
    Aestivation : Spending summer in tropid state.
    Carrion : Dead putrefying flesh, any thing filthy and dirty.
    Endangered Species : Wildlife species that are exposed to serve environmental stresses and are near extermination.
    Flock : Number of birds feeding and traveling in company.
    Herd : Company of animals especially cattle feeding or traveling together.
    Mortality : Death rate
    Natality : Birth rate
    Niche : Living cum functional place of an animal.
    Perch : Horizontal bar or anything like that for birds to rest upon elevated or secure position.
    Roosts : Birds perching or resting place.
    Route : Way taken in by animals getting from starting point to destination during migration.
    Sanetvary :Safe and secure place for birds, beast of fish.
    Territory : Area of habitat under the effective control of a particular animal or group of animals which is defended actively against others of the same species.
    Yawning : Breathing in involuntarily with mouth wide open as from drowsiness and fatigue.
    Population : Total number of animals of a species in specific habitat.
    Silvies : The life history and general characteristic of forest trees and stands with particular reference to environmental factor.
    Skid : To pull logs from the stump to the skidway, landing or mill.
    Slab : The exterior portion of a log removed in sawing timber.
    Seed tree : A tree that produces seed, usually trees reserved in a cutting operation to supply seed.
    Tree :A woody plant having one well defined stem and a more or less derivatively formed erowen, usually attaining a height of at least 8 feet.

    Tree wolf : A tree of occupying more space than its silviculture value warrants curtailing better neighbors. A term usually applied to broad convened shot stemmed tree.
    Tally : The count of trees, longs or other products to count trees, long, or other products.
    Toueerman : A lookout man stationed at a tower.
    Toxicity : The power of acting as a poison.
    Over Story : That portion of the trees in a stand farming the upper crown cover.
    What is Increment? An increase in the diameter, basal area, height, volume, quality or value of individual trees or stands in relation to time.
    Agricultural forestry : Practice of forestry in farmlands for obtaining numerous benefits such as wood, fuel ad forage, etc.
    Angiosperms : Trees with seeds enclosed by ovaries, i.e. broad leaf weeds.
    Annual rings :Annual growth layers formed by contrasting thin walled spring cells and thick walled summer / autumn cells: conspicuous in conifers.
    Biomass :Material produced by living organism.
    Coppice : Ratton, new growth from old stubbles / stumps.
    Defoliation : Loss of leaves due to seasonal change or insect attack.
    Gymnosperms : Trees with naked seed lying on flat ovaries i.e. conifers.
    Pollarding : Removal of branches for various purposes by assuring survival vigor of standing tree.
    Pruning : Removal of branches to improve the timber quality of standing tree.
    Range :An extensive area supporting native grasses and other forage plants suitable for grazing / browsing.
    Shelter belts : Linear trees / shrubs planted along field boundaries for sheltering crop, farm houses etc against harmful effects of winds.
    Xeromorphic :Plants that can tolerate drought.
    Animal equivalents :Food requirements of different kinds of animal expressed in terms of animal unit. (A cow weighing about 425 kg and eating 9 kg of air-dry forage per day).
    Carrying capacity : Maximum number of animal units that can be grazed in one ha. for one year. Or minimum number of hectares required feed on animal unit for on year.

    Ephemeral plants :Plants that compares their life cycle in a very short time (a few weeks).

    Grubbling :The act of removing roots, whether woody or herbaceous..

    Hay :Air-dried forage used or feed livestock during emergence.

    Nomad :Non-settled people, moving from place to place along with their livestock i.e. Bedouin, bakarwals, pawindas.

    Wild life :Non domesticated forms of animal life that are commonly under natural condition. These forms include insects, reptiles, mammals and birds etc.

     

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