Any substance that, when ingested, will supply nutrients such as carbohydrates, Proteins, Mineral Vitamins, H2O that nourish the body.
What is Food?
- Placing the food to be preserved in bottles.
- Closing the bottles with utmost care.
- Subjecting bottles to the action of boiling H2O for the certain length of time.
- Removing the bottles from the H2O bath at the end of the prescribed period.
- It loosens the skin
- It cleans the product by removing adhering contaminants.
- It removes tissue gas from leafy vegetable.
- It helps to fix the green color.
Freezer Storage: Describes the Situation where food is held in frozen state at a temperature below freezing point.
Deterioration: Deterioration in foods caused by physical phenomena that occur during processing handling &-storage.
Differentiate b/w baking & barbecuting?
Baking: Cooking in an oven with dry heat (100-232oC). Barbecuting: Direct heating over glowing, smokeless wood fire.
Pasteurization: Pasteurization treatment (65oC-88oC) is applied to kill pathogenic organisms including bacteria &-yeast (Vegetative form of bacteria are killed).
Sterilization: Sterilization employs much higher temperature (100oC or above) to destroy all microbial forms (Vegetative + Spores).
- Sour Taste: Is most readily detected on the sides of the tongue.
- Salty Taste: On the Sides &-tips
- Sweet Taste: On the tip.
- Bitter Taste: On the back of the tongue on the pharynx.
What is the effect of too much sugar in Cakes ?
Too much sugar causes a sticky crust & a gummy texture.
What’s the purpose of high mixing in high sugar Cakes than low-Sugar Cakes?
Ans: To achieve optimum volume during baking and prevent falling when removed from the oven.
What is meant by rendering?
Ans: Rendering is a process by which fat is removed from a
tissue by heat.
Examples of Oil in Water are?
Ans: Mayonnaise, Butter, Margarine.
What is the difference b/w Yoghurt and Curd?
Ans: Yoghurt:Desired Culture is used
Curd mixed culture is used
What is difference b/w Lassi and Whey?
Contain all soluble and insoluble materials, only fat is removed.
During Cheese formation Casein is separated and remaining liquid is whey.
Ans: Fat Concentrate which is obtained by Churning of milk.
What is the Composition of butter?
Ans: Fat 80-85%
Define Ice Cream?
Ans: A frozen dairy Product made by suitable blend and Processing of cream and other milk product together with sugar, flavor with or without stabilizer and color and with the incorporation of air during freezing.
Differentiate b/w sanitation &-hygiene?
Ans: Sanitation:The physical cleaning is simply called sanitation. eg. Proper Drainage, Removal of Waste material etc. The reduction of microbial load upto the maximum possible level ishygiene. It includes cleaning of environment and all the working conditions etc.
Why some fruit Juices rich in natural colors are notpreserved by SO2?
Ans: Because SO2 bleaches the natural color of the fruit Juices, so fruit Jucies rich in natural colors are preserved by Sodium benzoate.
What is meant by Smoke Point?
Ans: The smoke point is the temperature at which a fat or oil gives off a thin bluish smoke.
What are the types of separation techniques?
Ans: 1. Chromatographic technique
- Electromigration technique.
Define term Chromatography?
Ans: Chromatography is a dynamic physical process in which molecular components in a mixture are separated because of their different affinities for two substances referred to as phases, one being fixed or stationary and the other mobile phase.
What are the types of Chromatography?
Ans: 1. Liquid Chromatography
- Gas Chromatography
Enlist Modern Separation Techniques?
Ans: 1. High Performance/Precision/Pressure liquid
- Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)
- Gas Chromatography (GC)
- Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer(AAS)
- Flame Photometry(FP)
- Fourier Transform infrared Photometer (FTIR)
What is HPLC?
Ans: HPLC is high Performance/Precision/Pressure liquid chromatography. It is a separation technique used to separate Non-volatile compounds and high molecular compounds e.g, Antibiotics.
Define the Term Gas liquid Chromatography (GLC)?
Ans: Gas Chromatography is a technique for separating volatile substances by percolating a gas stream over stationary phase is liquid so called gas liquid chromatography.
Define the term Electrophoresis?
Ans: Separation of substances under high voltage (1.5kv).
Briefly Explain Spectrophotometery?
Ans: UV-Vis light absorbed by the sample as a function of Wavelength and radiated in the form of light spectrum which is detected by Photocathod tube and the signal is recorded.
What is thin layer Chromatography (TLC)?
Ans: TLC is a separation technique in which compounds are separated between two phases namely stationary phase and mobile phase.
Define the term lipolysis?
Ans: The breakdown of fatty material into free fatty acid and
glycerol, with the heat of lipolytic enzymes, called lipolysis.
Define the term proteolysis?
Ans: Proteolysis is the term that describes the break down of proteinaceous material.
Briefly explain the term fermentation?
Ans: Fermentation is the anaerobic or partially anaerobic oxidation of carbohydrates. During this process enzymes elaborated by microorganism, breakdown carbohydrates or carbohydrate like material into substances that are less subject to undesirable microbial activity than the original material.
Give the names of industries which are included in fermentation?
Ans: Baking, brewing, wine making, vinegar manufacture.
Enlist the fermented foods?
Ans: Yoghurt, Cheese, Sauerkraut, Pickles.
What is alcoholic fermentation explain with equation?
Ans: In this fermentation sugars are converted into ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide with the help of several yeasts most common according to this equation species of genera (Saccharomyces)
C6H12O6 —————->2C2H5OH + 2CO2