The theory and practice of classifying organisms.
Terms used for different forms of phenotype that may occur within a single population.
A group  of real organisms recognized  a formal unit any level of higher archy classification.


The theory and practice of classifying organisms.
Terms used for different forms of phenotype that may occur within a single population.
A group  of real organisms recognized  a formal unit any level of higher archy classification.
It is a rank or level in taxonomic higher archy.
A gradually and nearly continuous range of a character in a series of continuous populations.
All offspring’s derived by asexual reproduction from a single sexually produced individual.
A Para type of the opposite sex of halo type.
A single specimen designated or indicated by the original author at the tie of publication original specimen.
A specimen to the than holotype which was before the author at the time of preparation  original description and was so designated or indicated by the original author.
Pictorial form of material. A method of presenting taxonomic material primarily by means of comparative illustration rather than comparative description.
System of ranks in classification in descending order.
The flora and fauna of a region.
A population composed of similar genotype.
Geographical distribution of an organism.
Term applied to the species of same genus.
Term applied to the individual of same species.
Seasonal non-genetic changes in phenotype on species.
Diagrammatic drawing in the form of a tree designed to indicate degree of relationships as suggested by degrees of similarities.
A taxonomic category intermediate the genus and sub-family.
The study of the historical development of the line or lines of evolution I the group of organisms; the origin and evolution of higher categories.
The process of increase of pesticide in the food chain is called biomagnification.
The particular form of pesticide in which it is manufactured and marketed is known a formulation. It is always expressed in percentage and denoted by F.
The amount of active ingredient in a given volume or weight after formulation mixture is known as concentration.
The amount of actual poison in volume is called dose. It is measured in active ingredient.
The chemical, which is used to kill the insects through mortal effects, is called insecticide.
Chemicals are used to kill the pests called pesticides.
The substance after the combination of two or more substances as a result of chemical reaction.


What is entomology?
It is a branch of science, which deals with the study of insects.
What does entomon mean?
It means an insect.
What is applied entomology?
It is the study of insects, causing economic loss or benefit to human life or property, and their control.
What is an egg?
It is an embryo enclosed in a shell.
What is an embryo?
Developing zygote is called an embryo
What is starvation?
Sufferings caused in insects due to lack of food.
What are oviparous insects?
Insects’ producing/laying eggs.
What are viviparous insects?
Insects giving birth to the young ones.
What is an oviposition?
It is the period of egg laying.
What are surface insects?
Insects, which damage very young emerging plants from, soil surface.
What are hermaphrodite insects?
Insects having both the sexes i.e. male & female
What are diurnal insects?
These are day time active insects e.g. butterfly.
What are nocturnal insects?
The insects which are active at night e.g. moth
What are crepuscular insects?
Morning or evening twilight active insects.
What is insect control?
To manipulate the insect pest population in the best interest of humanity.
How many types of embryonic development are?
Two, 1: embryonic 2: post embryonic
What is embryonic development?
Changes occurring inside the egg up to hatching.
What are post embryonic developments ?
Development and growth of an insect from hatching up to the adult stages.
What are agricultural insects ?
Few species of ants and termite which depend upon cultivated plants.
What are cosmopolitan insects?
Insects which are found everywhere. e.g. house fly.
What is parasite ?
Insects which live at the expense of other organism
Are the insect parasites always larger or smaller than host?
Parasites are always smaller than their host.
What is a predator?
Free living animals that attacks, kill and feeds on other organisms.
What is the size of predator in relation to host?
Predators are always larger than host.
What are scavanger insects?
Some beetles and flies which feed on dead organisms.
What is metamorphosis?
All changes occur in form from hatching up to maturity (adult).
What is hyper metamorphosis?
It is the marked changes in larval life, i.e. larval instars/assumes two or more distinct forms of larvae, e.g. lemon butterfly
What is stadium?
Period between two moultings of an insect.
What is instar?
It is the shape of an insect between two moultings.
What is scutellum?
It is a triangular shield present on the thoracic notum between the bases of wings in hemiptera.
What are pseudo legs?
In immature stage of an insect abdomen posses some legs which are called pseudo legs.
Define caterpillar ?
Larvae having five pairs of prolegs, one on each of the 3rd , 4th , 5th , 6th and 10th abdominal segments, e.g. American bollworm
Define dormancy?
Arrested or non functional periods during which development and reproduction of the insect is suppressed.
What is diapause?
Physiological state of arrested metabolism in which development of insect is delayed.
Define obligatory diapause ?
It occurs at correct time and in univoltine sp.
What is univoltine species?
Insect species which have one generation in a year.
Define multivoltine species?
An insect having several generations in a year.
What are polyvoltine species ?
Having more than one generation in a year.
What is facultative/post embryonic diapause ?
Diapause occurring only in unfavourable conditions. It  occurs in polyvoltine sp.
Define hibernation/winter sleep ?
Diapause occurring in winter or under low temperature.
Define aestivation ?
Diapause occurring in summer/drought period or at high temperature.
Define leaf roller ?
Insects which during their larval stage roll the leaf for shelter and food.
What are leaf miner ?
Insect which in their larval stage mines and feeds between the two layers of a leaf on spongy mesophyll.
How does gall is made by insects ?
By releasing chemical secretions.
What is pupa ?
Resting , non feeding and inactive stage that occurs between larval and adult stages of endopterygotes.
Define nymph ?
Young ones of hemimetabola which have terrestrial habitat.
Define naid ?
The young ones of exopterygotes which have aquatic habitat.
What is a grub ?
Legless larvae of some beetles and bees having tiny head and few organs , body fleshy and rounded. Or immature of coleoptra.
Define maggot ?
Young one of fly. maggot is legless , one end is rounded , other is pointed. Or immature of diptera.
What is imago?
Adult form of an insect.
Define tegmine?
Leathery forewings of grasshopper and cockroaches.
Elytron, what is it?
It is a hard forewing of beetle.
Define hemelytra ?
For wings of bugs having basal half hard and distal half is membranous.
Define halteres?
Hind wings of true flies are modified into a knob like structure.   It acts as balming organ during flight.
What is insect morphology?
Study of form and structure of insects.
What is insect physiology?
Study of the functions of different parts.
57 . How many parts does an insects body has?
Three: head, thorax, and abdomen.
What is an antennae?
A pair of segmented sensory organs on insect head.
Name the parts of insects antennae?
Three , scape, pedicel , flagellum.
Define tergum or notum ?
Dorsal sclerotized region of insect body.
Define sternum ?
It is a ventral sclerotized region of insect body.
What are tagmata?
Main body region of insects.
Enlist the types of egg ?
Spherical , oval , conical , elongate , stalked . sculptured , with appendages.
What are the types of pupae?
Extract, coarctate, obtect.
what are insect mouth parts?
5 parts: labrum , labium , mandible , maxillae , hypo pharynx.
Define apiculture.
The practice of scientifically commercial rearing of honeybees for the production of honey along with secondary products like wax propilis and royal jelly is called apiculture.
Differentiate betweenapis cerana Fandapis mellifera L.
ApisceranaF: This bee is found in hilly areas of Pakistan and Azad Jammun and Kashmir. Naturally it is found in hollow trunks of big trees, cause of mountains and some other concealed places.
ApismelliferaL: This is called European bee. It can only be reared under modern scientific principles in the hives. It makes parallel combs enclosure.
What is meant by swarming ?
Process of division of a colony of honeybee on its own accord, it is a natural instinct.
What is meant by sericulture?
The art of rearing of silk worm on scientific lines for the production of silk is called sericulture.
What is meant by lac culture?
The art of rearing of lac insects on scientific lines for lac production is called lac culture or lac cultivation.
What are the important insect pests of gram?
Gram cut worm, grassy cutworm and gram aphid.
Write the name of insect pests of ornamental plants?
Rose aphid, pea leaf miner.
Write the name of the methods of pest scouting?
Diagonal method, zigzag method and Mario method.
Write the mode of damage of root borer of sugarcane.

Damage is done by larvae to the under ground portion of plants resulting in the drying of the growing shoot.


Q.1         Briefly explain the  mode of damage of Gurdaspur borer of sugarcane?
The larva destroy the canes by making spiral galleries; in the beginning it attacks in the patches in the field, and later on it spreads to the entire field where the canes dry up. The attacked nude portions of the canes break even by slight disturbance by air and animals.
Q.2      Define an insect?
It is a cold blooded, invertebrate, tracheal arthropod in which body is usually divided into three regions i.e. head, thorax and abdomen. Head bears a pairs of Antennae. Thorax bears two pairs of wings and 3 pair of legs and abdomen bears external genetalia. 
Q.3         Define a pest?
Ans:       In a wide sense, a pest may be defined as any organism which harms or causes damage to man directly or indirectly. (e.g.) weeds, rodents, insects and mites etc.
Q.4         Describe about a leaf roller?
Ans:       It is an insect, which in the larval stage of its life rolls a leaf, thus making a shelter in which it feeds and rests (e.g.) A large number of moths of family Pyralidae as Cotton leaf rollerSyleptaderogata.
Q.5         Describe about a leaf miner?
Ans:       It is an insect, which in the larval stage mines and feeds between the two layers of a leaf. They feed on spongy internal cells (mesophyll) of the leaf. Mostly, leaf miners are tiny flies or moths, however the grubs of some beetles species are also included under the term leaf miner (e.g.) Citrus leaf minerPhyllocnistiscitrella.
Q.6         What do you know about borers?
Ans:       The borers are insects, which in their larval stage, bore in buds, leaves, fruits, seeds, nuts, or stems etc. (e.g.) sugar cane borers, cotton boll worm complex etc.
Q.7         Define a gall?
Ans:       A gall is an abnormal proliferation of plant cells resulting from outside stimulus. The stimulus may be a mechanical irritation or injury, a fungal growth, or the activity of a nematode, a mite, or an insect (e.g.) Gall-louse produce gall on young shoots of conifers.
Q.8         Tell the mechanism of gall making by gall-insect.
Ans:       In case of insect, it is not the mechanical injury of the tissue that stimulates the plant but the chemical secretion released by the growing larvae after hatching from the egg.
Q.9         Do you know about Cannibalism?
Ans:       Cannibalism is a practice of dining on one’s own species. It is found in some species of termites, larvae of American boll worm and lacewing etc.
Q.10       Define larvae?
Ans:       The young ones of holometabola (insects having complete metamorphosis), or we can say. It is the second stage of indirect metamorphosis. The insect larvae are free living, different in structure and habits from their adults.
Q.11       Define an embryo?
Ans:       An animal or plant in early stage of its development, is called an embryo.
Q.12       What is a nymph?
Ans:       The Young one (immature stage) of hemimetabolous insects or exopterygotes, which are terrestrial in habit. (e.g.) grasshoppers, cockroaches etc. Nymph resembles with the adult except for the fact that wings and reproductive organs are undeveloped.
Q.13       Define facultative/post embryonic diapause?
Ans:       The diapause which occurs only in unfavorable environment is called facultative or post embryonic diapause. It occurs in polyvoltine (sp. With more than one generation in a year) species.
Q.14       What do you know about hibernation?*
Ans:       It is a type of diapause which occurs in winter. It is often known as winter sleep.
Q.15       Define  aestivation?*
Ans:       The type of diapause which occurs in summer or drought times, is called aestivation.
Q.16       Define  dormancy?*
Ans:       A not actively growing or functioning period in the life cycle, when growth development and reproduction are suppressed.
Q.17       Define starvation?*
Ans:       Suffering caused in insects due to lack of food, is called starvation.
Q.18       Describe what are the  herbivorous insects?
Ans:       Those insects, which feed on plants only, are called herbivorous insects (e.g.) crop pests i.e. cotton insect pests etc.

Q.19       Describe what are the  monophagous insects?
Ans:       Those insects, which feed on only one type of food, are called monophagous (e.g.) Pink Bollworm 
Q.20       Define omnivorous insects?
Ans:       Those insects, which feed on wide variety of food from plants to animals are called omnivorous insects (e.g.) ants.
Q.21       Define carnivorous insects?
Ans:       Those insects, which feed on animal flesh, are called carnivorous (e.g.) insect predators as green lacewing etc.
Q.22       Define oviparous insects?
Ans:       Producing eggs by females. (e.g.) beetles, bugs etc.
Q.23       Define viviparous insects?
Ans:       Producing young ones by females, (e.g.) aphids.
Q.24       Tell about the oviposition?
Ans:       The period of egg laying from 1st to the final egg by a female, is called oviposition.
Q.25       Define  natality?
Ans:       The birth rate of population, is called natality.
Q.26       Define  fecundity?
Ans:       The rate at which females produce eggs, is called fecundity.
Q.27       Define  vivility?
Ans:       The rate at which males produce sperms, is called vivility.
Q.28       Define a semilooper?
Ans:       The larva having three pairs of prolegs on 5th, 6th, and 10th abdominal segments. (e.g.) cotton semilooperTarachenotabilis.
Q.29       Define a caterpillar?*
Ans:       The larva having five pairs of prolegs, one each of the 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th and 10th abdominal segments. (e.g.) members of family Noctuidae and Pyralidae.
Q.30       Define a looper?
Ans:       The larva which makes a loop during locomotion and having two pairs of prolegs on 6th and 10th abdominal segments. (e.g.)members of family Geometridae.
Q.31       Describe wire worms?
Ans:       The wire worms are elongated ribbon like larvae of beetles. They are mostly found damaging the roots and tubers of potato crop (e.g.) larvae of click beetle (Elatecidae) and wheat wirewormsAgriotismancusSay.
Q.32       Define crepuscular insects?
Ans:       Insects which are mainly active during evening or morning twilight, are called crepuscular i.e active at dusk or dawn.

Q.33       Define a vector?
Ans:       Organism (often an insect), that transmits a pathogenic virus, bacterium, protozoan or fungus from one host to another (e.g.) whiteflies transmit leaf curl virus in cotton crop and aphids transmit banana bunchy top virus.
Q.34       What do you mean by insect control?
Ans:       Insect control does not mean to eradicate the insect population but, it means to check or reduce insect population, at sub economic levels.
Q.35       Describe the embryonic development?
Ans:       The changes which take place inside the egg up to the hatching and development of insect inside the egg, is called embryonic development.
Q.36       Describe the postembryonic development?
Ans:       The development and growth of an insect from the time of hatching upto the adult stage, is called post embryonic development.
Q.37       What is scutellum?*
Ans:       The scutellum is a triangular sclerite found on the thoracic notum; between the base of wings.
Q.38       Define a Parasite?*
Ans:       It is an organism which lives on or within another living organism. Parasites are always smaller and weaker than their hosts (e.g.) warble flies.
Q.39       Define a Predator?
Ans:       A free living animal that attacks and feeds on other organism(s), is known as predator. Predators are mostly powerful, larger in size than their prey (e.g.) Chrysopa Cornea (green lacewing).
Q.40       Briefly explain a parasitoid?
Ans:       The term is applied for those insects such as Ichneumon flies which ultimately kill their host, in contrast to true parasites such as warble flies which do not. Besides, parasitoid are parasitic only in certain stages of their life cycle.
Q.41       Define Scavengers?*
Ans:       Scavengers are some beetles and flies, which feed on dead organisms (decaying vegetables or animal matter) (e.g.) members of Carabidae family.
Q.42       Describe  hyper metamorphosis?*
Ans:       A type of complex metamorphosis in which larval instars assumes the distinct form of two or more types of larvae, in their development. In simple words hyper metamorphosis is the marked changes in larval life (e.g.) blister beetles (Meloidae).

Q.43       Define instar?
Ans:       It is the shape of insect during the stadium or stage between two moults. The number of larval instars varies from three to about thirty.
Q.44       Define agricultural insects?
Ans:       A few species of ants and termites, which depend on cultivated plants, are called agricultural insects. (e.g.) leaf cutter ants cut pieces out of leaves and carry them down to their nests as a medium on which they grow fungi.
Q.45       Define cosmopolitan insects”*
Ans:       Those insects which are found every where, are called cosmopolitan. 1% of all the insects are probably cosmopolitan. Many of them are parasites of man, like human lice, fleas, houseflies, cockroaches etc.

Q.46       Tell about the social insects?
Ans:       Those insects which live in organized colonies or possess cast system are called “social insects. ”. (e.g.) ants and honey bees etc.
Q. 47      Write down  the characters of true social insects?
Ans:       Social insects live in groups; they cooperate with each other to the point of a definite division of labour; they care for their young ones, feeding them progressively; they often practice trophallaxis, and they build nests. In respect of each characteristic there is a tremendous variation within each group.
Q.48       Define wild bees?
Ans:       The bees which are not reared for commercial purpose are called wild bees.

Q.49       What do you know about the  domestic bees?
Ans:       The bees which are reared artificially as commercial business are called domestic bees. (e.g.)Apis mellifera.
Q.50       Tell the castes of an insect society?
Ans:       Basically, there are two main castes: reproductive individuals, males and queen; and non-reproductive ones, workers.
Q.51       Write down the common species of honey bee?
Ans:       The common species of honey bee are following

Q.52       What is Royal chamber?
Ans:       The queen lives in a specialized portion of the hive, called as royal chamber.
Q.53       What thing distinguishes a female honey bee larva to develop into a worker or a queen?
Ans:       Quality of food. Each larva is fed by the workers on royal jelly for at least three days. If it receives this during its entire larval life it develops into a queen. But if, after the first three days the larva is fed bee bread, it develops into a worker. Queen larvae are reared in large cells, worker larvae in small cells.
Q.54       Tell the difference between body of a worker and a queen bee.
Ans:       The body of queen possesses 15 – 20 mm abdomen, which is five times larger than abdomen of a worker bee.
Q.55       Tell the difference between the drones and workers?
Ans:       The drones are males, the workers are sterile females. Drones are heavier bodied, having large eyes and do not possess sting and special pollen comb and basket.
Q.56       Define nuptial flight?
Ans:       Nuptial means marriage. The special flight undertaken at night by queen and a number of drones in which mating of queen takes place.
Q.57       Define wagging dance?
Ans:       In wagging dance wagging straight run gives the direction of the food. The angle of the straight made vertical is the same as the angle between feeding place, hive and sun.

Q.58       Define  pheromone?
Ans:      Pheromone is a chemical, secreted outside by an insect male or female for specific behaviour within the same species.

Q.59       Write down the types of the pheromones?
Ans:       The types of pheromones are following:

  1. Alarm pheromone———– To be alert for danger
  2. Aggregation pheromone————– To get together for food & mating
  3. Sex pheromone————- To attract the opposite sex
  4. Trail marking pheromone———- To follow each other

Q.60       Define chemical control of pest?
Ans:       The control by toxic chemicals including pesticides, sterilants, semi chemicals, growth regulators etc., to check pest population, is called chemical control.
Q.61       Define  pesticide?
Ans:       The chemical used to control the pest is called pesticide.
Q.62       What is active ingredient?
Ans:       It is the ingredient of pesticide formulation responsible for toxic effect.
Q.63       Tell the types of pesticides according to pest they control?
Ans:       The pesticides may be classified into following classes.

  1. Ovicide:

The chemical, which is used for killing or controlling the eggs of insects.

  1. Avicide:

(Derived from class Aves).chemical used for killing or controlling birds.

  1. Pesticide:

The chemical, which is used for controlling of the pest.

  1. Fungicide:

The chemical, which is used for controlling fungi. (e.g.) Benlate (50 WP) etc.

  1. Molluscicide:

The chemical, which is used for controlling snails and slugs.

  1. Rodenticide:

The chemical, which is used for the control of gnawing animals, i.e: rodents. (e.g.) Zinc phosphide, Aluminium phosphide, Coumatetralyl etc.

  1. Nematicide:

The chemical, which is used for the control of nematodes. (e.g.) Basamid (G), Furadon (3%G) etc.

  1. Herbicide:

The chemical, which is used for the control of herbs and shrubs.

  1. Weedicide:

The chemical, which is used for the control of weeds. (e.g.) Dicuran-MA (60 WP), Alrelon (75 WP) etc.

  1. Acaricide/Miticide:

The chemical, which is used for the control of mites. (e.g.) Sanmite, Nissorun, Ethion etc.

  1. Insecticide:

It is the chemical, which is used for the control of the insect (e.g.) Polytrin C, Thiodan (35 EC), Karate (2.5 EC) etc.

  1. Repellent:

Those substances or chemicals, which keep away the pest by their offensive appearance or odour.
Q.64       What are inorganic pesticides?
Ans:       Inorganic pesticides are derived from naturally occurring elements and do not contain carbon. (e.g.) Bordeaux mixture, calcium cyanide, sodium cyanide, boric acid etc.

Q.65       What are organic pesticides?
Ans:       Organic pesticides are man made, consisting of carbon, hydrogen and one or more other elements such as chlorine, oxygen, sulfur, phosphorus, nitrogen etc.
Q.66       What are the things required for safe application of pesticide?
Ans:       For safe application goggles, respirator, overalls, gloves, head covers, and gum boots are required.
Q.67       Define antidote?
Ans:       The treatment given to counteract the effects of a poison is called antidote.
Q.68       Define swath?
Ans:       The width of the area treated in one pass by a sprayer of other applicator.
Q.69       Tell about  the surveillance/pest scouting.
Ans:       The watch kept on a pest for determination of population density, dispersion and dynamic is called surveillance or pest scouting. A grower gets knowledge of pests population only through pest scouting. On the basis of which he may see that pest has reached economic injury level or not. In other words, it is time to spray or not.
Q.70       Enlist the kinds of Pests?
Ans:       The main kinds of pests are mentioned below.

  1. Major Pest: Any pest, which causes more loss to our crop, it is marked as major pest. (e.g.) cotton bollworms, sugarcane borers etc.
  2. Minor Pest: When damage cause by pest is slight, such pest is referred as a minor pest. (e.g.) sugarcane black bug.
  3. Key Pest:Key pests are perennially persistent species that dominate control practices. The pest population usually remain themselves above economic injury level. (e.g.) jassid, mango hopper etc. in simple words key pest may also be defined as, an insect pest or disease normally present at some time during the growing season that causes economic damage to a crop.
  4. Occasional Pest:It causes economic damage only in certain places or at certain times. Such pests have usually adequate biological or environmental control (e.g.) hairy caterpillar.
  5. Potential Pest/Secondary Pest: It causes no significant damage but due to injurious use of chemicals or cultural practices they cause significant loss. (e.g.) hairy caterpillar.
  6. Migrant Pest: Migrant pests are non resistant of agroecosystem that enter periodically for short period of time. (e.g.) Desert locust and other four types of locusts, army worms etc.

Q.71 What is the mode of action of Nerve poisons?
Most convential insecticide act as nerve poisons. These affect the insect nervous system mostly as narcotics, axonic poisons, or synaptic poisons.
Q.72 What is the mode of action of Axonic poisons?
These act primarily by interrupting normal axonic transmission of the nervous system.
Q.73 What is the mode of action of  muscle poisons?
Muscle poisons have a diret influence on muscle tissue.
Q.74 What are Physical toxicants?
Physical poisons block a metabolic process by physical rather than chemical, means.

Muhammad Ramzan Rafique
Muhammad Ramzan Rafique

I am from a small town Chichawatni, Sahiwal, Punjab , Pakistan, studied from University of Agriculture Faisalabad, on my mission to explore world I am in Denmark these days..

Articles: 4630

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