JATROPHA (Jatrupha curcus L.): A NOVEL SOURCE OF BIOPESTICIDE FOR THE ECO-FRIENDLY MANAGEMENT OF INSECT PESTS OF STORED COMMODITIES
Habib-ur-Rehman1, Mansoor-ul-Hasan2, Qurban Ali3, Saima Mirza1, Shahbaz shrif2
1Punjab Bioenergy Institute, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
2Department of Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
3Entomological Research Institute, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan
During post-harvest, 50 % of the total produced grains get deteriorated in few areas of world due the attack of insect pests (Fomal et al., 2007). Around 65-75 % of the total wheat production in Pakistan after harvest is stored at farm level for both seed purpose as well as food for a period of more than three months (Choudhry and Anwer, 1988).
Environment pollution, resistant developmental in insects, residual effects in commodities concerns has triggered the researchers to move safe insect pests management tools (Rajendran and Sriranjini, 2008). Botanicals are eco-friendly alternatives that can be effectively used for the management of insect pests.A number of plants such Neem (Azadirachta indica)( Hasan et al., 2012), safeda (Eucalyptus globulus)(Sagheer et al., 2013), Dhreek (Melia azadirachta), Datura (Datura inoxia) etc. have been used for the management of stored products insect pests. So for is the Miracle shrub, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), in addition to a source of biodiesel has been considered as potential source of curcin, a bio-pesticide for the management of insect pests of bio-energy crops (Jongschaap et al., 2012). J. curcas is a semi-evergreen shrub, with a height of 6 m (20 ft) or more (Janick and Paull, 2008). It is resistant to a high degree of aridity, allowing it to grow in deserts This shrub can grow is grown as live hedges to combat erosion, can also be grown on marginal lands by small holders because of its low cost of production or as live fences to protect market gardens from domestic animals (Openshaw, 2000). It contains phorbol esters, which are considered toxic(This aspect makes jatropha more or less traditional use for other purposes, mainly as medicines, in many parts of the whole world (Wink and Wyk, 2008). The Jatropha spp. Extracts (and particularly J. curcas) leaves, seeds and oil are repellent, toxic, either by contact or ingestion, to several agricultural insect pests. The extracts contains chiefly contain toxic curcin and diterpenes (particularly phorbol esters) (Devappa et al., 2010; Wink et al., 2012)
In addition of effects on human pathogens (Arekemase et al. 2011) numerous extracts of the plant have been described to have acaricidal/insecticidal or molluscicidal/anthelminthic activities on vectors of veterinary interest or medical on pests of non-agricultural concerns. These encompass mites (Dimri et al., 2004; Juliet et al., 2012), mosquitoes (Aina et al., 2009; Rahuman et al., 2008; Sakthivadivel, 2008), termites (Acda, 2009; Singh, 2008 and Verma et al., 2011; Zewdneh et al., 2011) and water snails hosts of human or cattle parasites (especially schistosomes) (Abd-Elhamid, 2004; Adamu et al., 2006; Devappa et al., 2010).
Crops on which Jatropha curcas extracts have shown potential as field or storage protectants. The extract of J. curcas has showed high efficacy against field crops such as maize (Agboka et al., 2009), cotton (Solsoloy, 1995), cowpea (Katoune et al., 2011; Habou et al., 2011), rice (Dowlathabad et al., 2010; Sujeetha et al. 2008), okra (Emosairue and Uguru, 199) and sorghum (Ratnadass et al., 2009) etc. Besides the field crops, the extract of J. curcas has proved very effective for the control of stored grain insect pests. Stored crops encompass wheat grain (Nabil et al., 2012), bean seeds (Kshirsagar, 2010), cowpea seeds (Adebowale, 2006), maize grain (Musa et al., 2011) and rice grain (Asmanizar et al., 2012, 2013)
There are 37 insect pest species against which J. curcas extracts have been employed. The Coleopterans were the most represented, with 13 species in six families, encompassing mainly stored grain-feeding beetles (Adebowale and Adedire, 2006; Kshirsagar et al., 2010; Silva et al., 2012) and flea beetles (Onunkun et al., 2012; Wink et al., 2012). Second one are the Lepidopterans with 12 species in seven families, encompassing stem boring and leaf-feeding caterpillars (Dowlathabad et al., 2010; Li et al. 2011) and head-feeding caterpillars (Agboka et al., 2009; Ratnadass et al., 2009; Georges et al., 2008). Besides these, J. curcas extract showed rematkable efficacy against sap-feeding piercing-sucking Hemiptera, with 11 species in five families (Habou et al., 2008; Sujeetha et al. 2008; Li et al., 2011) and grasshopper species (Cobbinah and Tuani, 1992).