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Effects and Management of Biological Magnification on Human Health.




  • Authors: Umar Niaz, , Burhan Ahmad, , Kamran Qamar, and M. Umar Javed, Department
    of Entomology University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan.
    .
    Introduction:
    Harmful chemicals and heavy metals flow into lakes, seas and ocean when agricultural and human
    waste is discharged into water. These chemicals and harmful metals cause various dangerous
    diseases and also affect the plants and animals. They also disturb the food chain and aquatic
    organisms. These chemicals are not digested they accumulate into animals that ingest them. Bio
    magnification happens due to predator and prey relationship.
    Effects of Bio magnification
    Effect on health:
    Some diseases which badly effects human health like birth defects, kidney and liver failure,
    respiratory disorders, brain hemorrhage and heart diseases that are caused by
    mercury,lead,cobalt,chromium and various chemicals.
    Effect on growth of marine life:
    Many harmful chemicals which accumulate in the vital organs of aquatic organisms that effect
    their growth. SO seabird crushes their eggs due to thinner shell instead of incubation them.
    Selenium and other heavy metals like mercury affect the reproductive organs of fish.
    Disturbance in food chain:
    Mostly aquatic organisms only depend on natural food web for growth. When harmful chemicals
    enter into soil, sea and ocean then consumed by aquatic organisms, so they create disturbance in
    food chain. It’s due to when small animals and plants absorb these harmful chemicals and after
    that small animals are consumed by large animals, and affecting the entire food web.
    Biological magnification Process:
    It consist on six various steps that are given below:
     By releasing harmful chemicals and other industrial effluents into
    environment:
    In this step, these harmful chemicals enters into soil, water, lakes. Concentrations of these
    chemicals are very low.
     Phytoplankton:
    Those plants which float in the sea and absorb toxins that stay in the tissues of them. Once
    absorbed, the toxins stay in their tissues without being excreted or broken down. With the passage
    of time toxin concentration will be very high up to 200 parts.
     Zooplankton:
    Those animals which float in seas and consume phytoplankton so by consuming them they take
    toxins which are present in these plants.so with the passage of time concentration increased up to
    two parts per billion.
    Small fish eat zooplanktons:
    They feed on these small animals so consequently, they also take up toxins which get absorbed in
    fatty tissues
     Large fish consume smaller fish:
    Large fish consume smaller fish for survival so like that they take up toxins by feeding smaller
    fish. The concentrations become higher up to 80 to 100 parts per billion.
     Other organisms consume large fish:
    When other organisms like dolphins and human consume large fish for food, they also absorb
    toxins. Human beings build up the toxins when they consume fish. So concentration will be high
    up to 10000 to 15000 parts per billion.
    Management strategies:
    We should not put the grease, fat oil and other oils down the sink
    We should not place the chemicals and other cleaning material down the sink
    Dust clothes, rappers, and other papers should be properly discarded in basket or dustbin
    We should use minimum amount of detergents for washing clothes and dishes
    We should use only phosphate free soaps
    We should use minimum quantity of fertilizers and chemicals for increasing our production

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