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Biologically control of insects of sugarcane through Chrysoperla Carnea




  • Biologically control of insects of sugarcane through Chrysoperla Carnea

    (Natural Enemy of Crop Pests)

    Arshad Ali1*, Muhammad Umair Yasin2, Farwa3 and Sadia Ismail3.

    1Postgraduate Lab, Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad

    2Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad

    3Stress Physiology Lab. Department of Botany, New Science Block, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad

    *Corresponding author’s email: arshadali2797@gmail.com

     

    Biologically control of insects of sugarcane through Crysoperla Carnea

    (Natural Enemy of Crop Pests)

    Common Name: Green Lacewing

    Technical Name: Chrysoperla carnea

    Family: Chrysopidae

    Order: Neuroptera

    Introduction:

    Chrysoperla carnea, known as the common green lacewing, is an insect in the Chrysopidae family. It is found in many parts of America, Europe and Asia. Although the adults feed on nectar, pollen and aphid honeydew, the larvae are active predators and feed on aphids and other small insects. It has been used in the biological control of insect pests on crops. Chrysoperla sp. received much attention of farmers as well as researchers as a potential biological pest control agent due to its tolerance to some pesticides as well. Effectiveness of Chrysoperla sp. as biological control agent has been demonstrated in field crops, orchards and in green houses. Inspired of all these benefits sighted, Chrysoperla sp. in field is rare due to frequent use of non-selective agrochemicals. Now, the importance of bio-intensive pest management has been familiar as a holistic approach for integrated pest management. This can be achieved only by using an insecticide which is selective sufficient to kill the insect pest and spare the natural enemies. Chrysoperla carnea has some natural, but variable, tolerance to several insecticides. Several species of aphids, spider mites (especially red mites), thrips, whiteflies, eggs of leafhoppers, moths, and leafminers, small caterpillars, beetle larvae, and the tobacco budworm are reported prey. They are considered an important predator of long-tailed mealybug in greenhouses and interior plant scapes. Under laboratory conditions, C. carnea is mass multiplied by using eggs of stored grain pest (Sitotroga cerealella) as a host. Adult of Chrysoperla feed by artificial diet and larvae reared on eggs of S. Cerealella. C. carnea laid green eggs on hard paper sheet which is collected and stored at 6-8℃ and then release immediately in field. Chrysopa sheets produced every year for reducing Peat populations below the economic injury level. These predators need to have a wide range of pest. They destroy large numbers of pests quickly.

    Biological control:

    Biological control is one of the oldest, economic, sustainable and environmentally friendly means of managing the pest. Crysoperla carnea are used worldwide as highly effective biocontrol agent. The importance of natural enemies (parasites, predators and pathogens) for combating pests in agro-ecosystems is coming into closer focus based on modern investigations. Presence of predators and parasitoids in field crops, orchards and vegetables has been a subject for many studies for reducing the insecticide usage and thereby environmental pollution. Sometimes the role played by the predators itself reduces the need of pesticide application.

    Appearance:

    Adult green lacewings are pale green about 12-20 mm long, with long antennae and bright golden eyes. They have large transparent, pale green wings and a delicate body oval shaped eggs are laid singly at the end of long silken stalks and are pale green, turning gray in several days. Adults are active fliers, particularly during the evening and night and have a characteristic, fluttering flight. The larvae, which are very active, are grey or brownish and alligator-like with well-developed legs and large pincers with which they suck the body fluids from prey. Larvae grow from <1 mm to 6-8 mm.

    Life Cycle:

    The larva stage has three instars and lasts two to three weeks. Mature third instars spin round, parchment-like, silken cocoons usually in hidden places on plants. Emergence of the adults occurs in 10 to 14 days. The life cycle (under 4 weeks in summer conditions) is heavily influenced by temperature. There may be two to several generations per year. The eggs are normally laid during the hours of darkness. The Larval Period of Crysoperla carnea is 7-10 Days and the Pupal Period is 8-10 Days. Adult can survive almost 60 days. Eggs Hatching started within 2-4 Day and Larvae grow from <1 mm to 6-8mm.

     

    Attack:

    Female lays green eggs in the hundreds, each egg with a vertical, hair like stalk and each egg produces a killing machine larvae that will eat hundreds of insect pests before It pupates In a small, parchment-like cocoon. The larvae, which are very active, are grey or brownish and alligator-like with well-developed legs and large pincers with which they suck the body fluids from pests. It kills eggs and nymph of sugarcane Pyrilla perpusilla, Several species of aphids, spider mites (especially red mites), thrips, whitenies, mealybug eggs of leathoppers, moths, and leafminers, small caterpillars, beetle larvae, and the tobacco budworm are reported pests.

    Benefits:

    We can can reduce the legal,environmental and health hazards of using chemicals in the field with exchanging it with using Biological control agents.Similarly by using biological control methods cost of pesticides can reduced. Biological control measures can actually prevent economic damage to the plants. People,animals and beneficial insects can be completely safe .

    Recommendations:

    Lacewing release rates range from &5 Sheets per acre depending on infestation levels. After emergence the larvae seek out the target pests. It’s best to start early in the season, then make repeat releases every 2-3 weeks, increasing quantities as more pests appear. Once the peak pest infestation period has passed, releases can be decreased and eventually stopped.

    Precautions:

    Observe field carefully prior to release sheets that there is no dangerous chemical in field. Handle the Chrysopa sheets very carefully while shifting from Lab to Field. If it’s inconvenient to release them immediately lacewing eggs may be refrigerated for a few days at 6-8℃ to delay hatching, but be careful not to freeze them. Don’t press the sheets if the eggs damage, than emergence of larvae will not took Face.

    Crops Protected:

    Sugarcane, cotton, sweet corn, potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, asparagus, leafy greens, apples, strawberries, gardens and orchids.

    Conclusion:

    This is a very important techniques to control insects from the above mentioned crops through the biological control agents. This is a cheap and confirmable method to control the insects from crops. These biological control agents or organisms are remains for a long time in the field of agricultural crops. The semi-perennial crops habitat approves natural biological control and brings hopeful environment for useful biological control. The first and primary method in biological control of sugarcane insects should be the nourishment of the natural biological control module through expectation of organization intrusion.

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