In developing countries of Asia, environmental pollution is the major problem. Pakistan is also facing the serious threat of environmental pollution. This is mainly results due to different activities performed by men e,g agricultural practices, transportation , construction, which not only attenuate the environment but also resulting a large amount of unnecessary substance termed as pollution, such as pollution of water, soil , oceans and also promoting global warming. It does not only destroy the natural environment but also have apocalyptic effects. Mostly untreated refuse is the big cause of soil, oceans and water pollution. The present age of environmental pollution in Pakistan is not good. It is more harmful rather than an atomic bomb. The new technology responsible for it because modern technology brought huge change in human life but at the same time it started damage to our ecosystem and natural resources. In Pakistan, present condition of environmental pollution is not good. Air, water, soil and noise pollution is threatening environment and human health. Human activities are damaging the environment adversely. A lot of suspended particulates matter is added by a stone crusher to the atmosphere and noise pollution as well. Another major source is automobiles which emit the carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide termed as atmospheric pollution. Different industrial waste material also adding in rivers, lakes, canals and oceans termed as water pollution. Pollution termed as soil pollution, caused by human made chemical or due to alternation in soil environment due to increase of temperature or microbial activity. Thermal pollutions are also harmful to our environment caused by power plants.
- AIR POLLUTION
Air is most important for survival of living on the soil. Approximately an average consumption of air is 3400 gallons each day. Unfortunately air quality is badly affected by human activities like domestic activities; fossils fuel consumption, vehicle exhaust, industrial exhaust, volcanic eruption. This is mainly due to release chemicals and particulates into atmosphere. Some common air pollutants are mentioned here.
Carbon monoxide, produced due to burning of fossils fuel. It is the 50% of total air pollution. In the cities, vehicles are major source of air carbon oxide. High level of CO in congested areas often causes deficiency of oxygen and creating obstacles in breathing. Almost 11% of total heart patients in hospital are admitted due to CO.
Ozone, it is major constituent of photochemical smoke, formed by NOCx and VOCx and oxygen in the presence of heat. It is of two type 1.stratosphere 2.ozone troposphere. But stratosphere is only harmful to living thing on the earth. It causes lung inflammation, asthma, inflammation of airways, eye problems and skin burning
Sulfur dioxide, it is added to environment due to natural phenomenon and anthropogenic activites e,g Combustion of fossil fuels, oxidation of organic material in the soil, volcanic eruption, biomass burning And coal burning is the big source of sulfur dioxide in the universe. Older people mostly affected by it because they have pre existing lung problems. It causes lung diseases. We can face its more exposure while exercise in the morning.
Nitrogen oxide, it also have same source like other pollutant e.g. Burning of fuel , motor vehicles, industrial boiler and electrical utilities. Latest study have revealed that NOCx exposure from 20 to 30 can cause respiratory problem in those people who suffering from asthma.
Lead (Pb), It is emitted due burning of fossil fuel and mining of metal. It also have bad effects on health. If someone exposed to lead over the time, cause abdominal pain, distracted, constipation, irritable, forgetful etc.
Particulate, they are composed of many small particles, comes from combustion of fossil fuel. It can damage air quality, cause respiratory problem
- Water Pollution
Almost 70% of our soil surface is covered with water. Water pollution is important issue of the day. Water is contaminated by variety of human activities such as accidental oil leakage, sewage and water waste, industrial waste, marine dumping, underground storage leakage, atmospheric deposition, global warming, radioactive waste and eutrophication.
Accidental oil leakage, oil spill pose is a major problem of water pollution and oil does not mix with water. It is a serious threat to marine life such as fish and birds.
Sewage and water waste, the sewage and water waste is produced by each house and released into ocean or rivers. It carries harmful chemicals and pathogen that can cause serious to human health. They cause deadly diseases to human and become breeding site of pathogen. Then they cause diseases to human e.g. malaria.
Industrial waste, industries producing a lot amount of waste in Pakistan which contains toxic chemical. When they incorporate in the rivers or oceans causes harmful effects to aquatic life including fishes and other marine life. They contain serious pollutant like sulfur, mercury, lead, asbestos and arsenic. When we consume fish they transfer to human body and cause bio accumulation.
Marine dumping, it refer to deposition of all waste material from industries, factories, tankers, ships and sewerage waste into the ocean and sea. All have adverse effect. This is also serious threat to aquatic life e.g. fish. When we eat fishes they cause bio accumulation in the human body, eventually cause problems to human being.
Underground storage leakage, leakage of underground storage pipe often contains petroleum, diesel and gas. When they get damage then they contaminate the underground water that we drink and make it completely unfit for use, ultimately effect the human life.
Atmospheric deposition, gasses and different particulate are emitted into the atmosphere in the result of burning of fossil fuel, slash burning, which at the end fall to the ground in the form of rain or snow. They gradually deposit in water bodies and penetrate into soil slowly and make water dirty for human use.
Global warming, sun light is trapped by carbon dioxide and other pollutant in the ground, that causes increase in temperature of ground. This is mainly done due to carbon dioxide. Global warming causes change in climate of the World, which cause often storms, melting of glashier, often flood. Due to these factors different type of diseases develops.
Radioactive waste, it waste consists of radioactive material, released by nuclear power plant. Radio active materials can affect all body function in case of severs effect. It may also be able to damage body metabolism, cause mutation in gene.
Eutrophication, it is due to when environment become rich with nutrients and it can become problem for marine ecosystem, can cause algal bloom. Algal bloom causes the deficiency of oxygen in the water, ultimately cause the death of aquatic life like fishes, plant etc.
Fertilizers, Maine source of eutrophication is the fertilizer, that is sometimes run off into the water and increases nutrients level in the water
Weathering of rocks, it also contributes in the eutrophication
Discharge of detergent, use of detergent for washing cloth at home, after washing they released in the rivers or canal where they cause eutrophication.
Discharge of partially or untreated sewerage, this is another major source , in Pakistan mostly untreated sewerage is released into rivers and canals. This sewerage contain harmful chemicals which cause eutrophication in lakes.
- Noise Pollution
Any unwanted sound counted as noise. It causes irritation while we are getting sleep or during work. Major source of noise pollution is stone industries, steel industries, loud speaker and movement of heavy vehicles on road. They cause irritation to human, increase blood pressure, make human lazy, losing of efficiency of work, lose of temper as well. Noise pollution is measured in term of Db. WHO recommended 45Db per day, 35 Db in night and above 80 Db considered hazardous.
- Soil Pollution
Any unwanted addition of thing is soil that affects the fertility of soil called soil pollution. Usually dirty water is the source of soil pollution. It contains glass, plastic cloth, sewage and sewage sludge, building debris. Another source of soil pollution is use of pesticide and fertilizer, dry deposition of pollution and acid rain also take in part in soil pollution.
Plastic cloth, it is prepared from low density polyethylene, naturally difficult to destroy and serious hazard to environment. It is non biodegradable, burning of plastic produces chlorinated compound, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.
Industries, it is consist of chemicals residues, nuclear waste, industrial chemicals, dyes. They produce serious health problem to human and causing different diseases in human.
Fertilizer and pesticides, use of different pesticides, fertilizers are the main source of soil pollution. Fertilizers run off in soil and cause eutrophication. Pesticides application is also serious threat to soil and human as well. Their use causes cancer, eye diseases, lungs damage etc.
- Thermal pollution
Many industries like chemical, thermal, nuclear industry, they use water as cooling agent then after cooling hot water is discharged into rivers, canals and oceans. As a result this water increases the temperature of receiving source that causes decrease in dissolving of oxygen in water. This mainly hit the aquatic life and has adverse affect on them. It also badly affects fish life in water, disturb their metabolism and cause their poor growth and give rise lack of food for human.
Soil erosion, it also contributes in thermal pollution, continuously soil erosion exposes the water bodies to absorb more sunlight, and increase in temperature may prove fatal for aquatic life. This way lessen the aquatic food for human, ultimately sea food lessens.
Deforestation, another source of thermal pollution is deforestation. This is due to modern man made activities, in case of deforestation more sun light absorb in the water bodies, that increases the temperature and affects their metabolism system. Deforestation is also major source of greenhouses gasses e.g. global warming.
Natural source, volcanoes and geothermal activity under the seas, also contributes in the thermal pollution. Lightening over the ocean also incorporates large heat into the oceans. It means that over all temperature of ocean increases that plays major role in the environment.
At the end, thermal pollution causes major change in biodiversity, increase in toxin, ecological impact both negative and positive, and also affect reproductive system of organism, increases metabolism activities and migration of organism.
Environmental pollution is the major problem of the day. It is most important component of our daily life.. Environment pollution is playing with our routine life. Environmental pollution important sources of environment pollution such as water pollution, thermal pollution, soil pollution, water pollution, radiation pollution, should be discouraged. These pollution types are serious threat for human life because these are causing different diseases such as eye diseases, cancer, lungs problems, and stomach problem. World Health Organization should take action against them.
MUHAMMAD WASIM AKRAM, RAO ADEEL UR REHMAN, MUHAMMAD QAISAR NAEEM KHAN, HASSAN NOORANI, WASIM USMAN , BILAL HAIDER, ANDLEEB REHMAN.
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, UNIVERSITY OF SARGODHA, PAKISTAN
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