Biologically control of insects of sugarcane through Trichogramma chilonis (Natural Enemy of Crop Pest)
Muhammad Sajid1*, Muhammad Ruman1, Arshad Ali1 and Kashif Ali1.
1Postgraduate Lab, Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
*Corresponding author’s email: [email protected]
Common Name: Trichogramma Tricon
Technical Name: Trichogramma chilonis
Insect pests establish a major biotic stress in sugarcane in Pakistan as they attack the crop from the period of planting till nearly harvest, causing yield and sugar losses. Trichogramma chilonis is a potentially biological control agent that is used worldwide as effective biological control agent. Trichogramma species are of insects in the globe which lay eggs parasitoids for biological control due to their efficiency and easy maintenance under laboratory conditions. These natural enemies of insects are used in more than 30 countries in biological control programs against insect pests. Because these species found in ecosystems where they can suppress many pests, these natural enemies are favored in many commercial biological control programs. Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera Trichogrammatidae) has been used as a biological control agent against various insect/pests attacking crops in the globe including sugarcane borers, corn borers, cotton bollworms etc. Under laboratory conditions T. Chilonis is mass multiplied by using stored grain pest (Sitotroga cerealella) as a host. The production involves the multiplication of host insect on wheat grains, allowed to parasitize by Trichogramma. Their eggs are pasted on cards as “Trichograma Cards”.
Anyhow, the vast array of natural enemies recorded on sugarcane pests, identification of potential natural enemies should be a continuous process. In biologically control method, special types of selected living organisms are used to control a particular types of insects and pests. Commonly, these organisms are used as biological control agents in the world. These organisms might be a predator, parasite or disease which attacked the harmful insects and pests. When the parasitoid (insects that feed on the body of another insect) completes its life cycle, it becomes a free-living insect, no longer dependent on the host.
It completes its life cycle in 7-10 days. It killed almost 200 types of harmful insects and pests eggs. The female drills a hole through the chorion and deposits its eggs within the egg of the insects/pests. Larvae emerged from Trichogramma egg and feed on host insect. Venom injected by the female at the time of oviposition, it is believed to cause this pre-digestion of the egg’s insects/pests eggs turn black. No insects/pest larva will emerge. One female parasitizes lay one to ten eggs per day or ten to 190 during her life. The number of eggs laid per host egg may vary from 1 to 20 or more depending upon the size of the host egg.
As we see insets/pests, cards are placed in the field and punched on the underside of the leaves to avoid the direct exposure to sun. Trichogramma releases in field on cards in pupal stage. After two to three days, Trichogramma adults emerge, they search out insects/pests eggs and destroy them by parasitism. In favorable environments, 70-80% borer eggs parasitism is bring down insects/pests population less than economic injury level.
Release of Trichogramma chilonis eggs are parasitoid fifteen to twenty cards at fortnight intervals in the different crops, these cards are six times commencing from April onwards effectively checks the incidence of pests. Release Rates On different Crops.
Amount/rates of Trichogramma chilonis applied on different crops
|Crops||Trichogramma Card Population/Acre||No. of Cards Per Acre|
|Tree and Vine Crops||30,000-60,000||08-10|
It is used against many harmful insects/pests in many crops including sugarcane, cotton, maize, orchards and vegetables.
Advantages of biological control:
Biological control is friendly and cheap method, it does not have adverse effects on human and animal’s health. Biological control is a long term control of insects/pests in the crops. Beneficial insects are safe in biological control techniques. Insects/pests developed resistance in response to continuous use of certain chemicals. In case of biological control no resistance could be seen.
The achievement of biological control largely depends on the accessibility of mass-produced biocontrol agents to the end-user. This can be guaranteed by the launch of adequate number of insectaries in sugarcane zones. Research laboratories that produce the mass-culture and field assessment technologies may provide the technical skill needed for their allocation as well as the subsequent quality preservation. Nonetheless, when combined with other appropriate pest management tools and expert under a required mode in all the listed farms of any factory, biological control will developed an important component of zone wide pest management idea and method in sugarcane.
The semi-perennial crops habitat endorses natural biological control and delivers encouraging environment for useful biological control. The first and foremost approach in biological control of sugarcane pests should be the nourishment of the natural biological control component through prevention of system interference. Mass multiplication and augmentative field conveyance of promising entrant agents against widespread pests in either prophylactic or restorative mode will be effective when espoused in an area-wide approach in the spatially and temporally adjoining crop habitation. Factors such as comparative abundance and competence, manifestation of higher host-related strains and pliability to multiplication for large-scale delivery should choose the optimal of the natural enemy from among the chief collections, namely parasitoids, predators and pathogens. Organizing the pesticide canopy to combat multiplying endemic pests, such as borers and white grub, would transmute sugarcane pest administration from the natural/applied biological control approach to insecticide approach, and sugarcane from an insurance crop to a disastrous crop.