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BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WHITEFLY




  • BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WHITEFLY

    Muhammad Zain Akhtar*1, Dr. Zain-ul-Abdin*1, Hafiz Imran Hussain*1, Waqas Ahmed*1, Zulfiqar Mushtaq*1,  Khurram Shehzad*2

    1Department of Entomology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan

    2Department of Zoology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan

    Corresponding Author: Muhammad Zain Akhtar

    zainkhankpr@mail.com

    Contact Number: 03056829125

    Encarsia Formosa

    Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae

    INTRODUCTION:

    Encarsia Formosa Gahan is widely used in all over the world for commercially used as a biological control of whitefly pest in greenhouse crops.  Early use of Encarsia Formosa as a biological control was stared in Europe in 1920s but by interest slowly shaded due to the development of pesticide.  After 1970s, use was initiated and also expanded from 100 hectares of greenhouse crops to 4800 hectares in 1993.

    Greenhouse area in various parts of the world with the area of Pakistan and Europe countries and that biggest concentration of greenhouse production but E. formosa is not used as commercial biological control of whitefly farmers prefer insecticides especially in Pakistan. North America and Asia, particularly Japan has very low rate use biological control. These are nominated countries where develop the use of E. formosa would be possible. Encarsia Formosa all life stages morphologically described below.

    PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: 

    Encarsia Formosa females are small (0.6mm in length), have black head and thorax and yellow abdomen. Male are rare and dark in color.

    LIFE CYCLE 

            Encarsia formosa potentially and successfully reproduced in greenhouses crops.  Encarsia Formosa prefer to parasitize in nymph and also good for host feeding and parasitism. E. formosa release in greenhouse. Parasitoid must apply infested plant in the fields. E. formosa depended on the host, walking speed, whitefly size and density of host availability on a leaf. Walking speed of host reduced leaf venation and honeydew with nymphs good for host feeding and parasitism. E. formosa is a slitry and endoparasitoid and which mature 8-10 eggs per day. Wasp age decreases by daily egg maturation and oviposition rates. Adults get their energy by the consumption of honeydew and heamolymph of that host pierce with ovipositor and which no egg deposit. Killing of host by E. Formosa for feeding purpose in all stage except egg but prefer second instar nymph and pupae, However E. farmosa probing the ovipositor for six minutes and also feed from the wounds, may enlarge their mandibles. This probing only for killing not for parasitize the host nymph used feeding not parasitizing and E. crasia Formosa parasitoid all the immature stages especially older than first instar nymph, third and fourth prefer. Host

     

     

     

    feed three nymphs per day, kill total of 95 nymphs over a 12 day of life span. Adult female chew exits a hole dorsal surface of host fourth nymph before emergence. From ovipositor to adult emergence take 25 days.

     

    HABITAT

    greenhouse crops E. carsia Formosa is used in tomato and cucumber. The used of this parasitoid in much smaller area of egg plan (Solanum melongena var. esculenta) plant and gerbera, (Gerbera jamesonii) poinsettia (Euphorbia puhlcemima), marigold (Tagetes erecta) and strawberry (Faragaria Xananassa) Not well known about the ecology of the E. carsia formosa in outdoor agricultural systems.

     PARASITISM

    Encarsia Formosa parasitoid is about least fifteen species of whitefly in eight genera. Most worked done at ability of E. carsiassss Formosa to control of whitely Trialeurodes vaporariorum, sweet potato whitefly Bemesia tabaci, silver whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii (Bemesia tabaci strain B) Encarsia Formosa hype parasitized by Signiphora coquilletti, an Encarsia tricolor.

     

    RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS

    Appropriate releasing E. formosa into green house for whitefly control have been suggested. Releasing at the time of infestation and the availability of host is very important.

    PESTICIDES SUSCEPTIBILITY  

    More than twenty article have published to check pesticide susceptibility, either in lab or under practical condition uses in greenhouses. But more then or up to hundred different compound effects have been determined. Selective material like buprofozin, azadrachtin, abamectin, resmetherien for interest for possible combination.

    COMMERCIAL AVAILABILITY

    Encarsia Formosa is commercially available in market.

    CONCLUSION

    Use of beneficial insect very good for farmer as well as ecofriendly. Now a day’s trends of heavy pesticides are high in rate that trend leads to us a major health problem.

    Through this technique majority of time saved, targeted insect control leaving not target insect. Biological control can be cost effective in the long run. It may introduce new species into the environment. This technology not expensive every farmer can have achieved it easily.

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