Apiculture and its economic importance
Author: Saad Ramzan, Tahwar Ali Syed, Muhammad Ahsin Ayub and Naeem Arshad Maan
Ayub Agriculture Research Institute (AARI), Faisalabad.
The practice of scientifically rearing honeybees for the production of honey, along with some secondary products like wax, propolis and Royal jelly etc is called apiculture
Species of honey bee:
- Apis cerana F.
- Apis mellifera L.
- Apis dorsata F.
- Apis florea F.
|Serial #||Caste||egg||larvae||pupae||Life span|
|1||Queen||3 days||5.5 days||7.5 days||16 days|
|2||Worker||3 days||6 days||7.5 days||21 days|
|3||Drones||3 days||6.5 days||14 days||24 days|
- Facilities require for rearing:
- Two story langstroth
- Comb foundation mill
- Wiring board
- Comb foundation
- Protective clothing
- Hive tool
- Wire entrance guard
- Division-board feeder
- Swarm catching basket
- Queen-cell protector
- Queen-introducing cage
- Uncapping knife
- Honey extractor
- Storage tank
- Enemies of honeybees
- The wax moth:
The larvae of this moth make silken tunnels in the comb under cover of which they feed upon beeswax. When attack is severe, the comb is covered with silken tunnels with numerous black particels, the fecal matter of the caterpillars. In such cases, bees absond
Four different species of wasp destroy bees at the entrance of the hive and in the fields.
- Black ants:
They take away honey, brood and pollen. They fight with bees. When infestation is high the bees abscond. They can be controlled by placing the bee-hives on wooden stands with the legs in earthen cups containing water.
Some mites are the worst enemies of the bees.
Control of enemies:
Spray malathion or dichorvos for the control of above mentioned enemies
- Stone brood (fungal)
- American fowl brood (bacterial)
- European fowl brood (bacterial)
- Chalk brood (fungal)
- Sack brood
- Seasonal management
- Spring management
- Study condition of queen, quantity of brood, and amount of honey present.
- Clean the hives.
- Give more comb space if required.
- Swarming takes place during spring period.
Control of swarming:
- Relieve congestion
- Provide ample comb space and ventilation
- Clip wings of old queen
- If necessary, transfer brood frames to a queen excluder and give new frames with comb foundation in the brood chamber.
- Search and destroy queen cells regularly.
- Place wire entrance guard so that queen is not able to go out.
- Summer management
In this period, bees abscond and colonies become weed due to adverse climate, attack of wax moth and lack of bee flora. So control absconding and unite bee by way of two queen system, multiple queen system, better ventilation, ample honey and watching bee enemies
- Two queen method:
A condition of two colonies held together but working independently. Two parts of hive separated by queen excluder each queen working in its own territory.
- Multiple queen system:
More than two queens in the same brood chamber without partition. This provide better situation, ample honey storage and close watch on bee enemies
- Winter management
- Protect by packing 3 inches grass etc. and place in wind protected place
- Keep strong colonies with plenty of honey and good queen.
- Unite week colonies with strong ones.
- Feeding of honey bees
During scarcity period, feed them on honey or sugar syrup. Before winter 2 parts of sugar and one part of water, otherwise 50:50. Put solution in air tight tin or in dishes with straws following on surface.
- Honey extraction
When honey flow has stopped and ½ to ¾ cells capped; take out frames and remove the bees. Uncap combs with a hot uncapping knife and put frames in extractor and revolve. Honey will come out by centrifugal force
Allow the honey to settle down for 3-5 days and then put it in bottles.
- Economic importance
- First year expenditures for 10 colonies
|1||10 colonies with hives|
(3000 rupees/ colony)
|2||100 basic frames|
|3||10 kg wax|
|4||50 kg sugar|
|5||Rearing tools||500 rupees|
|Total expenditures||39,000 rupees|
- First year income
|2||10 bee swarms|
Total income = 219,500
Total expenses = 39,000
Net income = 49,500 – 39,000
Net income = 180,500 rupees
- Second year expenses
Ten more colonies
|1||10 bee hives|
|4||Wax 20 kg||2,000|
|5||Sugar 100 kg||5,000|
- Second year income from 20 colonies
|2||10 bee swarms|
Total income = 222,500
Total expenses = 27,000
Net income = 222,500 – 27,000
Net income = 195,500
Prices of every things may vary