Water Resources

What are the latest techniques for water management and conservation?

– Raised-bed irrigation method.
– Zero tillage technology.
– Plantation on contours on slopping lands.
– Deep tillage for enhancing water intake/penetration.

Which are the measures recommended to overcome water shortage for irrigation?

– Development of storage reservoirs/dams.
– Light application of pre-sowing irrigation with raingun sprinkler for sowing of crops at recommended time.
– Use of supplemental irrigation to save crop from complete damage/failure.
– Use of deficit irrigation instead of complete irrigation.
– Leveling of fields for light and uniform irrigation.
– Deep tillage for in-situ conservation of rainwater.

What are the new technologies developed by PARC for improved irrigation?

– Drip/sprinkler irrigation system indigenized for cost reduction.
– Raised bed plantation/sowing of crops.
– Land leveling coupled with deep tillage and balanced nutrient application.
– Lining of water courses with PE sheets.

What is the role of sprinkler and drip irrigation systems in water conservation?

– Sprinkler and drip irrigation systems can apply required amounts of irrigation whereas in surface irrigation light and 
uniform irrigation is difficult.
– Sowing of crops at right time with small quantity of water is possible with sprinkler and drip irrigation systems.
– Crop damages due to high temperature and frost can be controlled.
– The leveling of fields is not required.
– The sandy and undulating un-commanded areas can be brought under crops.
– The quality of fruits and their yields can be improved.
– Uniform application of water, fertigation and chemigation can be done by sprinkler and drip irrigation systems.

What are the major recommendations for efficient use and better management of water?

Application of irrigation according to consumptive use of water.
Deep tillage for easy intake of irrigation water.
Application of balanced nutrients and organic matter.
Use of drip/sprinklers in water-stressed areas.

Courtesy parc.gov.pk

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