The seeds have to be separated from the fruit before they are sown or stored. The methods of seed extraction vary with the kinds of fruit. They are:
- Pulpy and fleshy fruits: When seeds are to be sown immediately, as in the case ofArtocarpus, Michelia, etc, it is necessary to remove the fruit pulp before sowing. Otherwise their germinative capacity falls, e.g., Azadirachta indica. The method of removing pulp varies with the kind of fruit. Treading or beating can be done e.g., Gmelina. In some cases, it is done by hand after keeping the fruit in water in a container for sometime after which it is kneaded, pounded and squeezed while still in water until the seeds are freed and can be washed out. The soft pulp floats on water and the freed seed sinks to the bottom and thus two can be separated by decantation. Fleshy fruits with very small seeds e.g. Morus, Anthocephalus, etc) need special treatment. After depulping them in water, the water containing the pulp and seeds is put in a fine muslin cloth through which the water and the soft pulp can be squeezed out, leaving the seed behind.
- Dry fruits: The dry fruits can be classified into the following categories to extract seeds: Those in which the entire fruit is sown with seed contained in it, e.g., Teak, Walnut, Oak, etc. These seeds do not require any extraction. Those in which part of the fruit is sown with the seed contained in it, e.g., Dalbergia sissoo, etc. Such seeds require only beating to break the fruit. For this purpose, seeds are kept in a gunny bag and given sufficient beating to break the fruit. Those in which clean seed is sown, e.g., conifers. The usual method of extraction consists of spreading the ripe fruit in the sun on clean hard floor or in trays until they open up. They can then be shaken or beaten to separate the seeds. In some cases, the opened fruits eg,.Bombax ceiba are kept in a gunny bag of bamboo basket and churned with a wooden stick till the seeds are separated and collected from the bottom of the bag or the basket.
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