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Permaculture Plants: Elderberry





  • Elderberries should be in every Forest Garden
    American Elderberry (Sambucus canadensis)
     

    Common Name: Elder, Elderberry
    Scientific Name: Sambucus species
    Family: Adoxaceae (the Elders and Viburnum Family)
    Common Species:
    • American Elderberry (Sambucus canadensis, sometimes named Sambucus nigrasubspecies canadensis)
    • Common/European Elder (Sambucus nigra)
    • American Red Elder (Sambucus pubens)
    • European Red Elder (Sambucus racemosa)
     
    Elderberry flowers are often valued more than the fruit!
    American Elderberry (Sambucus canadensis)
     

    Description:
    The Elderberry is a large shrub that is best known for its showy flowers (often made into fritters) and small but abundant, edible, dark blue-purple berries. However, it is also a fantastic attractor of beneficial insects and hummingbirds, can be used as a windbreak or living fence, provides food and shelter for wildlife (especially birds), and is a great pioneer species.
    Common/European Elder (Sambucus nigra)
     

    History:
    The American Elderberry is native to eastern North America from Canada south through to Panama in Central America. The European Elder is common in cooler areas of the European continent. It was used by native peoples in all places for food, drink, and medicine. Many cultivars have been developed but mainly for ornamental purposes and not flower or fruit production.

    The Red Elder/Elderberry species are named for their berry color
    Red Elderberry (Sambucus racemosa)
     

    Trivia:
    • There are between 5 and 30 species of Elder depending on how “species” is defined
    • There are “black-berried”, “red-berried”, “Australian”, and “dwarf” groups of Elder species as well as a few others that don’t really fall into these groups
    • The Red Elder/Elderberry species, of which there are many, produce red berries
     

    Elder flower fritters
     

    USING THIS PLANT
    Primary Uses:
    • Edible fruit – cooked (most common), fresh (some don’t like the taste), dried, or used in preserves/jams/jellies, etc.
    • Edible Flowers – fresh or cooked. Popular when covered in batter and fried into fritters. Can be pickled if picked when unopened. Fresh flowers can be soaked in water to make a refreshing drink.
    • Tea Plant (dried flowers are used)
     
    Secondary Uses:
    • General insect (especially bees) nectar plant
    • Wildlife food plant, especially birds
    • Nectar source for hummingbirds
    • Shelter plant for small mammals and birds
    • Windbreak species
    • Living Fence species
    • Larger varieties can be coppiced
    • Pioneer Species
    • Fruit and flowers can be used for wine or flavor adjuncts in beer, liquors, and cordials
    • Medicinal Uses. There are many reported, but its use as an antiviral has a lot of scientific support in the medical literature.
     
    Yield: 12-15 lbs (5.5-7 kg) per plant, but often less
    Harvesting: Flowers – pick on sunny days when shedding pollen. Fruit – harvest in Late Summer (August-September) when in full color. Many people will either use a berry picker/comb or snip off whole heads and pick off at home.
    Storage: Use or process fresh as flowers and fruit do not last long
     
     


    Larger varieties and species can be used as a Canopy or Sub-Canopy Layer
    Common/European Elderberry (Sambucus nigra)
     
     
    DESIGNING WITH THIS PLANT
    USDA Hardiness Zone: 3-10
    AHS Heat Zone: 8-1
    Chill Requirement: Likely, but no good information is available
     
    Plant Type: Small Tree or Large Shrub
    Leaf Type: Deciduous
    Forest Garden Use: Canopy Layer for small Forest Garden, Sub-Canopy (Understory) Layer, Shrub Layer
    Cultivars/Varieties: Multiple varieties available
     
    Pollination: Requires cross-pollination with at least one other variety/cultivar
    Flowering: Late Spring through Summer (May-July)
     
    Life Span:
    Years to Begin Bearing: 2-4 years,
    Years to Maximum Bearing: 3-6 years
    Years of Useful Life: No good information available, but this plant freely suckers. As one plant is starting to decline, a suckering plant can be established to take the original plant’s place in the garden and in production.

    The leaves and flower buds of the Elder.
    Common/European Elderberry (Sambucus nigra)
     

    PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THIS PLANT
    Size:
    • American Elderberry (Sambucus canadensis) – 6-13 feet (1.8-3.5 meters) tall and wide
    • Common/European Elder (Sambucus nigra) – 13-20 feet (4-6 meters) tall and wide
    • Red Elder (Sambucus racemosa) – 10 feet (3 meters) tall and wide
    Roots: Fibrous with the ability to sucker (send up shoots from underground roots)
    Growth Rate: Fast
     
    Elder flowers can be eaten fresh, cooked, or used as flavorings in drinks
    Common/European Elderberry (Sambucus nigra)
     

    GROWING CONDITIONS FOR THIS PLANT
    Light: Full to partial sun
    Shade: Tolerates light shade
    Moisture: Can grow in wet to dry soils
    pH: prefers fairly neutral soil (6.1 – 7.5), but can tolerate more alkaline soils
     
     
    Propagation: Usually from seed (germination highest with cold stratification, up to 39 weeks). Can be propagated from cuttings of half-ripe wood in Summer or mature wood in Autumn. Can divide suckers in late Autumn and Winter when the plant is dormant, but don’t take too late in Winter as Elderberry leafs early.
     
    Maintenance:
    Minimal, but will need to cut back suckers if not wanted.
     
    Concerns:
    Poisonous – Leaves, stems, roots, and immature fruit contain a precursor to cyanide (large amounts need to be eaten for this to be toxic).

    Whole sprays/heads, full of fruit, are often easier to harvest all at once.
    American Elderberry (Sambucus canadensis)
    Original Article Here

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