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AGRICULTURAL PROFILE OF DISTRICT JHANG




  • BRIEF HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION

     

    Jhang District is a district of the Punjab province of Pakistan. The city of Jhang is the district’s capital. According to the 1998 census of Pakistan, the district’s population was 2.8 million, of which 23 percent lived in urban areas. By 2008, according to estimates, the population had risen to 3.5 million. The native language is Punjabi, though Urdu is also spoken in educational institutions.

     

    Jhang is one of the oldest districts on the subcontinent(being one of five districts established in Punjab in 1849), having being populated even around 2,000 BC, when it was known as Jhagi Sial. Jhang is bordered by Sargodha District to the north, Gujranwala District to the northeast, Faisalabad District and Toba Tek Singh District to the east, Khanewal and Muzaffargarh District to the south, Leiah District and Bhakkar District to the west, and Khushab District to the northwest.

    The district comprises on four administrative units (tehsils) Jhang, Athara Hazari, Shorkot, and Ahmad Pur Sial.

    Jhang District covers 8,809 km². Almost all the area is cultivatable land except in the north near Rabwah and Chenab Nagar where the land turns rocky as it approaches the Kirana hills. The western portion of the district holds the Thal Desert, which starts in Mari Shah Sakhira and extends to banks of the Jhelum River far to the west in the districts of Khushab and Bhakkar. There is also an area known as the Sandal Bar arising from Pabbarwala near the Gujranwala boundary. “Bar”, in the local language, means a forested area where there are no resources for cultivation, like water. This area used to be forested and was unable to be cultivated before British colonial rule, when a canal system was installed near the town of Lyallpur (now Faisalabad), which is now the textile industry hub of Pakistan. Between the rivers Jhelum and Chenab is also a small area of Kirana bar, ending at Ghoriwala village. The area alongside the banks of rivers Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum is called Hitthar (area in which flood water reaches), while the upland area between the bars and Hitthar is called Utar.

    History

    Jhang District was agricultural region with forests during the Indus Valley Civilization. The Vedic period is characterized by Indo-Aryan culture that invaded from Central Asia and settled in Punjab region. The Kambojas, Daradas, Kaikayas, Madras, Pauravas, Yaudheyas, Malavas, Saindhavas and Kurus invaded, settled and ruled ancient Punjab region. After overunning the Achaemenid Empire in 331 BCE, Alexander marched into present-day Punjab region with an army of 50,000. The Okara was ruled by Maurya Empire, Indo-Greek kingdom, Kushan Empire, Gupta Empire, White Huns, Kushano-Hephthalites and Shahi kingdoms.

    In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the Ghaznavid dynasty empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktegin, In 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul in 1005, and followed it by the conquests of Punjab region. The Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal Empire ruled the region. The Punjab region became predominantly Muslim due to missionary Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of Punjab region. After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh invaded and occupied Jhang District. The Muslims faced severe restrictions during the Sikh rule. During the period of British rule, Jhang district increased in population and importance.

    The predominantly Muslim population supported Muslim League and Pakistan Movement. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslim refugees from India settled in the Jhang District.

     

    Culture and religion

    Punjabi folk dances such as Jhummar and Sammi originated in Jhang District. Jhummar is a dance for men while Sammi is for women. The district also originated a well-known form of folk music known as “Dhola”, or “Jhang da Dhola”.

    Traditionally men wear turbans and dhotis (similar to a skirt or kilt) though in recent years people have started wearing the national dress, the shalwar kameez. Some older women also wear dhotis. When women wear dhotis, the style is referred to called “Majhla” in Jhangochi; th male style is called “Dhudder”. However, it is more common for women to wear shalwar kameez.

     

    The northwestern Jhang District, particularly the area at the west bank of the Jhelum River, is somewhat different in its culture because it is more influenced by the Thalochi culture emanating from the neighboring districts of Mianwali and Bhakkar .

    Jhang District has dominant Muslim population(both Shia and Sunni.The non-Muslim minorities include small number of Ahmadiyya and Christ.

    Source: Wikipedia / GoB officials

    AGRICULTURE PROFILE

     

    DETAILS OF PRIMARY CROPS AND LIVESTOCK

     

    MAIN  CROPS (2008-09)

     

    Wheat

    Rice

    Fruits

    Vegetables

    Fodder

    In Tonnes

    1122900

    182000

    75446

    95672

    3386100

    Area (He)

    401000

    102800

    8448

    7220

    140900

    Tonne / He

    2.79

    1.77

    8.93

    13.25

    24.03

     

    MAIN  LIVESTOCK (2006) thousand number

     

    Cattle

    Sheep/Goat

    Buffalo

    Camel

    Number of Heads

    873

    1392

    1175

    3.084

     

    LAND AREA AND LAND USE

     

    LAND USE

    AREA (Ha)

    % of Total Distt Area

    Total Geographical Area

    1472

    100

    Area Reported

    616

    41.84

    Area Under Forest

    5

    .003

    Not Available for Cultivation

    55

    3.73

    Culturable Waste

    75

    5.09

    Current Fallow (C.F)

    37

    2.51

    Net Sown (N.S)

    444

    30.16

    Area Sown more than once (A.S.M.T.O)

    240

    16.30

    Net Cultivated Area (C.F + N.S)

    481

    Net Cropped Area (N.S + A.S.M.T.O)

    684

    Source: Irrigation Department

     

    2.1       CLIMATE

                                                                                                                                                          (In MM/ºC)

    AVERAGE RAINFALL & TEMPERATURES

    MONTHS

     

    J

    F

    M

    A

    M

    J

    J

    A

    S

    O

    N

    D

    Aver.

    Mean

    Rainfall

    18

    35

    24

    13

    18

    48

    82

    87

    43

    9

    11

    12

    33.33

    Max. Temp.

    19

    22

    27

    33

    39

    39

    35

    35

    34

    30

    27

    21

    30.08

    Min. Temp.

    8

    11

    16

    20

    26

    28

    27

    27

    25

    20

    14

    9

    19.25

        Source: http://www.myweather2.com/City-Town/Pakistan/Jhang/climate-profile.aspx?month=1

    2.2       AGRICULTURE STATISTICS

     

    Crop

    Area (Ha)

    Production (Tonnes)

    Yield T/Ha

     

    2007-08

    2008-09

    2007-08

    2008-09

    2007-08

    2008-09

    Wheat

    371900

    401000

    963800

    1122900

    2.59

    2.80

    Rice

    102800

    182000

    1.77

    Fodder

    141500

    140900

    3398100

    3386100

    24.02

    24.03

    Fruits

    8662

    8448

    77059

    75446

    9.12

    8.93

    Vegetables

    8093

    7220

    115874

    95672

    14.32

    13.25

     

     

    MAJOR GRAINS, FRUITS &VEGETABLES

     

    S.NO

    CATEGORY

    NAMES

    A.

    GRAINS

    Wheat, Rice, Maize.

    1

    Oil seeds

    Rape Seed, Mustard.

    2.

    Pulses

    Moong, Mash, Masoor.

    3.

    Fodder

    Lucern, Jowar, Bajra.

    B.

    FRUITS

    Mango, Citrus, Guava, Water Melon, Musk Melon Jaman, phalsa.

    C.

    VEGETABLES

    Tomato, Onion, Lady Finder, Tinda, Radish, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Carrot, Bitter & Bottle Gourd, Potato, Pumpkin, Cauliflower, Brinjal,

    D.

    OTHER

    Chillies, Coriander, Garlic

    Source: Agriculture Statistics

     

    2.2.1    VEGETABLES

    Vegetable

    Area (Hectare)

    Production (Tonnes)

    07-08

    08-09

    07-08

    08-09

    Chilli

    155

    160

    236

    259

    Coriander

    59.0

    61.0

    38.0

    42.0

    Garlic

    122.0

    127.0

    929.0

    996.0

    Ginger

    0.0

    0.0

    0.0

    0.0

    Onion

    1299.0

    1310.0

    8412.0

    11063.0

    Sugar beet

    0.0

    0.0

    0.0

    0.0

    Tomato

    115.0

    111.0

    1410.0

    1375.0

    Potato

    6343.0

    5451.0

    104849.0

    81937.0

     

     

    Source: Agriculture Statistics


     

    2.2.2    FRUITS

     

    Fruits

    Area (Hectare)

    Production (Tonnes)

    07-08

    08-09

    07-08

    08-09

    Apple

    0.0

    0.0

    0.0

    0.0

    Apricot

    0.0

    0.0

    0.0

    0.0

    Banana

    26

    26

    160

    165

    Citrus

    4741

    4484

    37617

    35730

    Dates

    803

    840.0

    5776.0

    5924.0

    Grapes

    0.0

    0.0

    0.0

    0.0

    Guava

    1337.0

    1340.0

    13459.0

    13542.0

    Mango

    1751.0

    1754.0

    20026.0

    20063.0

    Plums

    0.0

    0.0

    0.0

    0.0

    Pomegranate

    4

    4

    21

    22

    Peach

    0.0

    0.0

    0.0

    0.0

    Pear

    0.0

    0.0

    0.0

    0.0

    Source: Agriculture Statistics

     

    2.3       IRRIGATIONS SCHEMS AND THEIR OUTPUTS

     

    Irrigation Scheme

    Irrigated Area (Ha)

    Non Irrigated Area

    Total area sown

    09-10

    09-10

    680

    Canal

    29

     

    Wells

    12

     

    Tube Wells

    171

     

    Canal wells

    24

     

    Canal tube wells

    370

     

    Total

    606

    74

    Source: Irrigation Department             

    2.4       LIVESTOCK

     

    Livestock

    2006 Census

    Mules

    1084

    Horses

    12755

    Donkeys

    113474

    Camels

    3084

    Bullocks

    48130

    Male buffaloes

    33

    Female Buffaloes

    495

    Cows

    552

    Total

    179607

             Source: Department of Agriculture & Livestock

    2.5       ANIMAL SLAUGHTERED

    Livestock

    2009-10

    Cattle / Cows

    148

    Sheep

    260

    Goat

    554

    Others

    1

    Buffalos

    161

    Total

    1124

             Source: Department of Agriculture & Livestock

     

     

         

     

    2.6  VETERINARY INSTITUTION

     

    Veterinary Institution

    2009-10

    Hospitals

    17

    Dispensaries

    71

    A.I. Centre

    3

    A.I. Centre stands for Artificial Insemination Centre

    D.I.L. Unit Stands for Disease Investigation Laboratory Units

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