BRIEF HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION

 

Jhang District is a district of the Punjab province of Pakistan. The city of Jhang is the district’s capital. According to the 1998 census of Pakistan, the district’s population was 2.8 million, of which 23 percent lived in urban areas. By 2008, according to estimates, the population had risen to 3.5 million. The native language is Punjabi, though Urdu is also spoken in educational institutions.

 

Jhang is one of the oldest districts on the subcontinent(being one of five districts established in Punjab in 1849), having being populated even around 2,000 BC, when it was known as Jhagi Sial. Jhang is bordered by Sargodha District to the north, Gujranwala District to the northeast, Faisalabad District and Toba Tek Singh District to the east, Khanewal and Muzaffargarh District to the south, Leiah District and Bhakkar District to the west, and Khushab District to the northwest.

The district comprises on four administrative units (tehsils) Jhang, Athara Hazari, Shorkot, and Ahmad Pur Sial.

Jhang District covers 8,809 km². Almost all the area is cultivatable land except in the north near Rabwah and Chenab Nagar where the land turns rocky as it approaches the Kirana hills. The western portion of the district holds the Thal Desert, which starts in Mari Shah Sakhira and extends to banks of the Jhelum River far to the west in the districts of Khushab and Bhakkar. There is also an area known as the Sandal Bar arising from Pabbarwala near the Gujranwala boundary. “Bar”, in the local language, means a forested area where there are no resources for cultivation, like water. This area used to be forested and was unable to be cultivated before British colonial rule, when a canal system was installed near the town of Lyallpur (now Faisalabad), which is now the textile industry hub of Pakistan. Between the rivers Jhelum and Chenab is also a small area of Kirana bar, ending at Ghoriwala village. The area alongside the banks of rivers Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum is called Hitthar (area in which flood water reaches), while the upland area between the bars and Hitthar is called Utar.

History

Jhang District was agricultural region with forests during the Indus Valley Civilization. The Vedic period is characterized by Indo-Aryan culture that invaded from Central Asia and settled in Punjab region. The Kambojas, Daradas, Kaikayas, Madras, Pauravas, Yaudheyas, Malavas, Saindhavas and Kurus invaded, settled and ruled ancient Punjab region. After overunning the Achaemenid Empire in 331 BCE, Alexander marched into present-day Punjab region with an army of 50,000. The Okara was ruled by Maurya Empire, Indo-Greek kingdom, Kushan Empire, Gupta Empire, White Huns, Kushano-Hephthalites and Shahi kingdoms.

In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the Ghaznavid dynasty empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktegin, In 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul in 1005, and followed it by the conquests of Punjab region. The Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal Empire ruled the region. The Punjab region became predominantly Muslim due to missionary Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of Punjab region. After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh invaded and occupied Jhang District. The Muslims faced severe restrictions during the Sikh rule. During the period of British rule, Jhang district increased in population and importance.

The predominantly Muslim population supported Muslim League and Pakistan Movement. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslim refugees from India settled in the Jhang District.

 

Culture and religion

Punjabi folk dances such as Jhummar and Sammi originated in Jhang District. Jhummar is a dance for men while Sammi is for women. The district also originated a well-known form of folk music known as “Dhola”, or “Jhang da Dhola”.

Traditionally men wear turbans and dhotis (similar to a skirt or kilt) though in recent years people have started wearing the national dress, the shalwar kameez. Some older women also wear dhotis. When women wear dhotis, the style is referred to called “Majhla” in Jhangochi; th male style is called “Dhudder”. However, it is more common for women to wear shalwar kameez.

 

The northwestern Jhang District, particularly the area at the west bank of the Jhelum River, is somewhat different in its culture because it is more influenced by the Thalochi culture emanating from the neighboring districts of Mianwali and Bhakkar .

Jhang District has dominant Muslim population(both Shia and Sunni.The non-Muslim minorities include small number of Ahmadiyya and Christ.

Source: Wikipedia / GoB officials

AGRICULTURE PROFILE

 

DETAILS OF PRIMARY CROPS AND LIVESTOCK

 

MAIN  CROPS (2008-09)

 

Wheat

Rice

Fruits

Vegetables

Fodder

In Tonnes

1122900

182000

75446

95672

3386100

Area (He)

401000

102800

8448

7220

140900

Tonne / He

2.79

1.77

8.93

13.25

24.03

 

MAIN  LIVESTOCK (2006) thousand number

 

Cattle

Sheep/Goat

Buffalo

Camel

Number of Heads

873

1392

1175

3.084

 

LAND AREA AND LAND USE

 

LAND USE

AREA (Ha)

% of Total Distt Area

Total Geographical Area

1472

100

Area Reported

616

41.84

Area Under Forest

5

.003

Not Available for Cultivation

55

3.73

Culturable Waste

75

5.09

Current Fallow (C.F)

37

2.51

Net Sown (N.S)

444

30.16

Area Sown more than once (A.S.M.T.O)

240

16.30

Net Cultivated Area (C.F + N.S)

481

Net Cropped Area (N.S + A.S.M.T.O)

684

Source: Irrigation Department

 

2.1       CLIMATE

                                                                                                                                                      (In MM/ºC)

AVERAGE RAINFALL & TEMPERATURES

MONTHS

 

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

Aver.

Mean

Rainfall

18

35

24

13

18

48

82

87

43

9

11

12

33.33

Max. Temp.

19

22

27

33

39

39

35

35

34

30

27

21

30.08

Min. Temp.

8

11

16

20

26

28

27

27

25

20

14

9

19.25

    Source: http://www.myweather2.com/City-Town/Pakistan/Jhang/climate-profile.aspx?month=1

2.2       AGRICULTURE STATISTICS

 

Crop

Area (Ha)

Production (Tonnes)

Yield T/Ha

 

2007-08

2008-09

2007-08

2008-09

2007-08

2008-09

Wheat

371900

401000

963800

1122900

2.59

2.80

Rice

102800

182000

1.77

Fodder

141500

140900

3398100

3386100

24.02

24.03

Fruits

8662

8448

77059

75446

9.12

8.93

Vegetables

8093

7220

115874

95672

14.32

13.25

 

 

MAJOR GRAINS, FRUITS &VEGETABLES

 

S.NO

CATEGORY

NAMES

A.

GRAINS

Wheat, Rice, Maize.

1

Oil seeds

Rape Seed, Mustard.

2.

Pulses

Moong, Mash, Masoor.

3.

Fodder

Lucern, Jowar, Bajra.

B.

FRUITS

Mango, Citrus, Guava, Water Melon, Musk Melon Jaman, phalsa.

C.

VEGETABLES

Tomato, Onion, Lady Finder, Tinda, Radish, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Carrot, Bitter & Bottle Gourd, Potato, Pumpkin, Cauliflower, Brinjal,

D.

OTHER

Chillies, Coriander, Garlic

Source: Agriculture Statistics

 

2.2.1    VEGETABLES

Vegetable

Area (Hectare)

Production (Tonnes)

07-08

08-09

07-08

08-09

Chilli

155

160

236

259

Coriander

59.0

61.0

38.0

42.0

Garlic

122.0

127.0

929.0

996.0

Ginger

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Onion

1299.0

1310.0

8412.0

11063.0

Sugar beet

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Tomato

115.0

111.0

1410.0

1375.0

Potato

6343.0

5451.0

104849.0

81937.0

 

 

Source: Agriculture Statistics


 

2.2.2    FRUITS

 

Fruits

Area (Hectare)

Production (Tonnes)

07-08

08-09

07-08

08-09

Apple

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Apricot

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Banana

26

26

160

165

Citrus

4741

4484

37617

35730

Dates

803

840.0

5776.0

5924.0

Grapes

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Guava

1337.0

1340.0

13459.0

13542.0

Mango

1751.0

1754.0

20026.0

20063.0

Plums

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Pomegranate

4

4

21

22

Peach

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Pear

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Source: Agriculture Statistics

 

2.3       IRRIGATIONS SCHEMS AND THEIR OUTPUTS

 

Irrigation Scheme

Irrigated Area (Ha)

Non Irrigated Area

Total area sown

09-10

09-10

680

Canal

29

 

Wells

12

 

Tube Wells

171

 

Canal wells

24

 

Canal tube wells

370

 

Total

606

74

Source: Irrigation Department             

2.4       LIVESTOCK

 

Livestock

2006 Census

Mules

1084

Horses

12755

Donkeys

113474

Camels

3084

Bullocks

48130

Male buffaloes

33

Female Buffaloes

495

Cows

552

Total

179607

         Source: Department of Agriculture & Livestock

2.5       ANIMAL SLAUGHTERED

Livestock

2009-10

Cattle / Cows

148

Sheep

260

Goat

554

Others

1

Buffalos

161

Total

1124

         Source: Department of Agriculture & Livestock

 

 

     

 

2.6  VETERINARY INSTITUTION

 

Veterinary Institution

2009-10

Hospitals

17

Dispensaries

71

A.I. Centre

3

A.I. Centre stands for Artificial Insemination Centre

D.I.L. Unit Stands for Disease Investigation Laboratory Units

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here