Hafiz Muhammad Bilala*, Chunlong Lia, Rabbia Zulfiqarb
aCollege of Horticulture & Forestry Sciences, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan,
bDepartment of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, PAKISTAN
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
Agriculture plays a very crucial role in the economy of Pakistan and its development. 48% of the labour force is captivated directly by Agriculture. Agriculture is the major source of income and an important part of the economic population.
Horticulture has a substantial share in obtaining foreign exchange for the country. Horticulture crops are very necessary for humans as they play an essential role in making a production, balance diet, processing and marketing ornamental flower, mushroom farming and medicinal herbs are also involved in horticulture cropping.
Citrus is considered the most crucial group of fruits in subtropical and tropical regions. This plant is characterized by its slow growth rate and commercially it is reproduced through grafting or budding on seedling rootstocks. Citrus is the best source of vitamin C. Citrus fruits also contain a stunning list of other necessary nutrients, involving both non-glycaemic and glycaemic carbohydrates, fibre and sugars, folate, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, thiamin, vitamin B6, niacin, pantothenic acid, copper, riboflavin and a variety of phytochemicals. At the national level in Pakistan, 95% of citrus is produced in Punjab and out of which 70% is kinnow. The area occupied under this production and total production is 192.3 thousand hectares and 2458.4 thousand tones.
In evaluating fruit crop’s efficiency rootstock play an important role. The purpose and use of rootstock in fruit crops are significant because they affect canopy architecture, quality of fruit, nutrition, flowering and yield. Orchard efficiency is determined by rootstock as it plays a key part in this regard. They are responsible for mineral uptake and water also gives anchorage for trees. Too dry or wet soils tolerate to some extent the stresses they undergo through rootstocks.
In Punjab rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri L.) root stock is important in making refined superiority of mandarin and kinnow, especially in citrus growing areas. It offers an extensive root system with consequential high destructibility and drought resistance to Fusarium and Phytophthora.
Growing media are an essential part of the most horticultural production system. The rising media are the substrates for the plants to lift and anchor root air spaces for the plants so as to allow ventilation and retain ample accessible water for the plant to expand.
Potting media plays a chief role in the production and quality of citrus plants. In Agriculture wheat straw is one of the crucial by-product that is not used as industrial raw material on a remarkable scale except for only a slight part that is restrained as household fuel, animal consumes, or as raw resources for the paper industry.
Burning of rice leaves a by-product is rice husk and rice husk is obtainable in sufficient amounts because of its great particular surface area. Rice husk is the coating of seeds or grains of rice. It has been demonstrated to be a probable low-cost material in the applications of building materials and water treatment.
Bagasse is a remnant that is fibrous in nature and it is left after sugar is removed from sugar cane. Processed bagasse is added to human food as sugarcane fibre. It is used as a variant source of pulp and paper in manufacturing industries globally.
Nursery media have been set up to determine the emergence and growth of seedlings produced and it is therefore compulsory to find a satisfactory medium that will raise its vigour. It is requisite to find acceptable soil mixes that will help to produce healthy root growth in the nursery before they are transplanted to their enduring site to certify good seedlings for orchard establishment or plantation.
The most important use of media and soil for the cultivation of container citrus plants is growing substrates. The industrial use of peat media is non-reusable and costly but low-priced substitutes are produced by the use of higher nutritional media that possess many beneficial qualities and can reduce the need for fertilization, reduce irrigation rates and lesser other costs. The most important production and quality considerations for flowers are potting combinations. Potting media has positive effects on diseases.
Nutrient-filled media directly controls the growth of plants being grown inside. The chief organic source for the supply of necessary minerals for the plant was farmyard manure. For victorious vegetable and fruit production, massive applications of organic matter are needed. Potting media is a dynamic structure of gaseous, solid and liquid that is of critical significance.
Soilless growing media composed of dissimilar waste components and organic materials is promoted as a substitute for agricultural land and as a way to abolish the environmental impact of waste.
The growth of plants in a container directly relates to the nutrients and nutrient-filled porous soilless or soil media that helps in finer root development in confined space. Dissimilar natural growth media have been inspected for nutrition and their effects on plant growth in Rough lemon and Sour orange rootstocks.
Dissimilar media for soilless culture have dissimilar nutrient and water capacity and aeration. It is well known renowned that soilless cultivation is a substitution for soil cultivation when significant water and soil problems (i.e., salinity of water, lack of fertile soil, pests born soil, soil salinity and chemical contaminants in soil water shortage) generates trouble in soil based development. The key benefits of soilless cultivation are the most precise control of water source, the absence of soil sterilization, control of production factors, reduction of labour requirement, more crops per year etc.
Adequate support or anchorage would be provided for a plant as a water source for nutrients that allows the diffusion of oxygen from the roots and allows for the exchanges of gaseous materials between the atmosphere and roots from outside the root.
Three features of cultivating media are to manage plants in soil, to provide water, nutrients and plant roots with sufficient oxygen. Satisfactory potting media are accessible in the market but it is difficult for the common grower mainly those from developing countries to bare the high cost of the potting media.
In order to efficiently grow seedlings media is used as a censor. Since mediums are of critical significance in the germination of seeds and have a direct impact on the development and maintain their equilibrium with the rooting system.
Rough lemon rootstock is very sensitized to salt stress which lessens the yield and growth of the citrus crop in many areas worldwide. The rootstocks have a substantial influence on fruit dimension, scion vigour and consistency of juice, fruit yield and on temperature, dryness and salt resistance. The rootstock of citrus also has a massive effect on the leaf mineral quality of the scion.