Wall’s Ice Cream industry
In 1995 Unilever started manufacturing of ice cream in Pakistan with brand Name “Wall’s”. Unilever became the largest ice-cream manufacturers in Pakistan through an amalgamation with Polka in May 1999.It has HACCP and Total Quality Management certification. It is situated in Bhai Pheru .Its production capacity is 30 million litres per annum.
IGLOO ICE CREAM
Pakistan Dairy Products, Igloo Ice Cream, is the pioneer ice cream manufacturer in Pakistan & operating since 1974. As a nation wide premium ice cream manufacturer. The Company operates from Karachi; however its distribution network covers a vast area of Sindh and Balochistan. Out of a largely consumed range of scrumptious products, the Supreme Ice Cream range is a market winner with its multitude of exceptional and unmatched flavors such as Strawberry Cheesecake, Cookies N Cream, and lots more mouth watering flavors. Igloo is providing ice cream to its valuable consumers through three different channels, which are tricycles, retail outlets & igloo parlors. These channels ensure efficient delivery & maximum fun & satisfaction to consumers.
YUMMY ICE CREAM
It prepares pure dairy ice cream from milk fat. Its production capacity is 10 million litres per annum. t is situated in Koat Lkhpat, Lahore.
HICO ICE CREAM
It is situated In Lahore. Its production capacity is 3 million litres per annum.
ROCOO ICE CREAM
It is Situated In Islamabad. Its production capacity is 5 million litres per annum.
Ice cream is a frozen desert made from dairy products (milk, cream) combined with flavoring and sweeteners. Modern Commercial Ice Cream Composition 1.10-16% milk fat 2.9-12% MSNF (whey and caseins proteins, carbohydrates ) 3.12-16% sweeteners (sucrose, corn syrup) 4.Stabilizers 0.2% 5.Emulsifiers 0.2% 6.55-64% water 7.Total solids 36-45%
LAWS RELATING TO ICE CREAM MANUFACTURE
There are many rule and regulations governing the manufacture of ice cream ranging from composition regulations through hygiene to storage temperature.
Any ice cream sold must comply with the following standards: 1. It must contain: a) not less than 5% milk fat b) not less than 2.5% milk proteins 2. If ice cream is describe as a dairy ice cream then it shall conform to the above composition but the fat shall consist entirely of milk fat.
FOOD HYGIENE REGULATIONS 2006
New food hygiene legislation was introduced in January 2006.This covers all food production in two parts-
a) Regulation relates to food of animal origin
b) Regulation relates to the hygiene of foodstuffs
This regulation gives powers to Local Authority Officers to serve Improvement Notices on unsatisfactory premises, which specify work which must be done. The regulation cover standards required for premises, working areas, equipment and staff also hygiene standards to raw milk, the manufacture of heat treated milk and microbial criteria ICE CREM HEAT TREATMENT LAW These regulations have been amended and apply only to ice cream (contain non milk fat) .However the treatment temperatures remain the same for dairy ice cream as for ice cream
Method 1:A temperature of not less than65.5 c for at least 30 minutes.
Method 2:A temperature of not less than 71.1 for at least 10 minutes.
Method 3:A temperature of not less than 79.4 c for at least 15 seconds.
The mixture should be raised to and kept to a temperature of not less than 148.9 c for at least2 seconds. After heat treatment the mixture must be reduced to 7.2 c or below within 1.5 hours and kept at such temperature until the freezing process begins. The Ice Cream Heat Treatment regulations require the use of indicating and recording thermometers in the equipment in which the ice cream is heat treated, records of such must be kept for at least one month.
Ingredients should be listed in descending order. The name of the ingredient must be the same name as if it were to be sold separately.i.e; fat should be stated as the type of fat used e.g. animal fat or vegetable fat. Quality ingredients must be quantified by percentage. Compound ingredients may be declared in the following way:
a) The ingredients of the compound may be declared singly in the ingredient list.
b) The name of the compound ingredient may be used with its ingredients listed in descending order after the name of the compound ingredient.
c) If the compound ingredient constitutes less than 2 % of the finished product then it may be declared by name only, providing it does not contain any additive or allergens.
d) Additive must be labeled with a category and declared by name or serial number.
LAWS FOR ICE CREAM PRODUCTION
Manufacturing process of ice cream can be divided into nine steps which are:
9. Storage and distribution
All the basic ingredients are mixed together in a suitable vessel which can be heated. This is usually a steam jacketed, stainless steel vessel fitted with an agitator and connected to a pasteurizer. The mixing vessel may be fitted with a homogenizer which will mix the product at a high shear to break up the fat globule (pre –pasteurization homogenization) or the homogenizer may be fitted in to the exit line (post-pasteurization homogenization)to shear the mix as it is taken to cooler.
As laid down in the Dairy products (Hygiene) Regulation 1995 and the Ice cream (Heat Treatment) Regulation 1959(as amended), all ice cream sold for human consumption must be subjected to heat treatment.
Not all manufacturers have a homogenizer fitted in to the production process line as it is not an essential part of the process. If some one is fitted the resultant ice cream has a finer texture and can be whipped more easily at the freezing stage. The homogenizer may be fitted to the mixing vessel so the mix is homogenized before heat treatment or may be fitted so that the mix passes through it after heat treatment at temperature prior to being cooled.
After heat treatment the ice cream mix must be cooled to a temperature below 7.2 c within 90 minutes. This is done by passing the mix through a cooling device either by a plate heat exchanger in larger scale manufacture or by running it over plates cooled by chilled water or a refrigerant. It is important that this cooling is as rapid as possible to ensure the mix passes through the temperature zone (5-63c) in which most bacteria are able to grow. Again the temperature at exit should be monitored and recorded.
The mix once cooled is put into an ageing vat. This vessel has a means of cooling the mix and keeping it below a temperature of 7.2 c (preferably 0-4 c) and is fitted with a stirrer to enable the mix to be gently agitated and a recording device to monitor temperature. The mix is then left to age for a length of time not exceeding 72 hours. This enables the milk proteins and stabilizer to become fully hydrated and the fats to crystalline and hardened and has the effect of increasing the viscosity of the mix making it easier to whip and giving a finer, smoother-textured ice cream.
If the ice cream is to be sold as a soft serve ice cream, it will be frozen in horizontal batch freezer specifically designed to dispense the ice cream from the front of the machine. There are two type vertical and horizontal batch freezers. Vertical freezer has the freezing cylinder or barrel mounted vertically and the temperature is lowered either by immersion in calcium chloride brine solution or by coils around the cylinder through which are circulated refrigerant gases. Horizontal freezers have the cylinder mounted horizontally and the beating apparatus designed so that the ice cream is propelled towards the front of the cylinder where discharge port is located. Due to the horizontal alignment of the cylinder if is possible to incorporate more air with this freezer so recipe with higher total solids (32-36%) can be frozen.
Whichever freezer is used the ice cream on exit will be in the region of -2c to -7c and still be quite soft. It is at this stage that inclusions such as fruit, nuts, and flavor pieces may be added by way of a fruit feeder or the ice cream rippled. It is then packed into its final packaging and taken to the blast freezer to be hardened.
Part from the soft serve ice cream designed to be eaten straight away from freezer the ice cream is too soft to keep for any length of time so it is put in to freezer to further harden. Rapid freezing by way of blast freezer will ensure that the ice crystals remain so small keeping a smooth texture to the ice cream. Temperatures are around -20c to -25c.
STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION
The finished product if kept at around -20c to-25c will have a shelf life of 12-18 months. A distribution temperature of -25c to-30c is recommended as fluctuations around this area cause less danger.
The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention estimate food borne disease causes 76 million illnessses and 5000 deaths in the United State annually. The majority of the illnesses occur in foodservice establishment and in the home. However food processing plants are not exempt from fooodborne out brakes and product recalls. Examples of product recalls include ice cream contaminated with Salmonella enteritidis. Foodborne outbreak and product recalls destroy the reputation business. Potentially hazardous dairy products may be contaminated with foodborne pathogens. Also food ingredients such as dry milk powder are considered to be potentially hazardous because reconstituted (water added) milk powder will support microbial growth. Good manufacturing practices and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point systems will ensure a safe high quality food product. Time and temperature control is essential for processing food. Most bacteria that cause illness thrive in the temperature danger zone between 5c and 60c.keep hot food hot and cold foods cold is a good rule for food safety.
GOOD Manufacturing Practices
To produce and sell food for human consumption food business must confirm to Good Manufacturing Practices. The GMPs include following areas:
- Equipment and procedures
- Process and grounds
- Process and control
- Sanitary facilities and controls
- Sanitary operations
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points is a systematic approach to food safety.HACCP involves identifying and assessing hazards associated with food production. Once the food safety hazards are identified, controls are implemented to reduce or eliminate the identified hazards. Hazard may be biological, chemical, or physical. A biological hazard exists when potentially hazardous foods are inadequately processed or prepared. A chemical hazard would include storage of cleaning agents or pesticides in a food processing area, increasing the risk of accidental contamination of food. Physical hazards may include extraneous material, such as grease from pump, contaminating food in a processing plant to metal shavings contaminating menu items in a food service establishment.