SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TOWARDS MANAGEMENT OF PARTHENIUM (Parthenium hysterphorus L.)
Amir Sohail 1*,Shehbaz Sharif 1*,Muhammad Afzal2 ,Burhan Ahmad1,Muhammad Usman1,Muhammad Iqbal1 ,Faizan amjad1 ,Muhammad Mohsan
1 Department of Entomology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad.
2 Department of Plant Production , King Saud University Riyadh Saudi Arabia
Corresponding author1*: Haadikhan822@gmail.com
Parthenium is a destructive weed found in majority of crops in Pakistan throughout the year and known as Gajar Boti. It has negative effects on human and animal’s health and also on environment. It was first time reported in Mexico from where it was introduced to Australia, East Africa and Asia. In India it was accidentally introduced in 1956 and now found in China, Taiwan, Vietnam and other African countries. It is supposed that this weed was introduced in Pakistan from India through river water and spread to the major canal irrigated land area. It is consider as most notorious weed because it is difficult to eliminate it from field once it introduced and their long survival and rapid spread. According to the recent survey of agriculture department, Punjab it is reported on roadsides, water channels and barren land.
IDETIFICATION OF PARTHENIUM
It is annual weed that spread in form of branches. Its leaves are light green and covered with soft hair. Its young leaves contain more hair as compared to old leaves. It contains lobes on the corner of leaves. This plant has deep root system with erect stem and hard. Its height varies from 1.5 to 2 meters. Its flowers are small with white color and its appearance just like a star. At maturity seed turned into brown color. Each flower contains four to five seeds having size 2mm.One plant of parthenium can produce approximately 25000 seeds which are capable to grow for 7 years.
This weed can grow on all type of soil but it prefers to grow on clay loam soil. Its seeds are able to grow in February to march. It requires water for its germination. In low rainfall areas its germination power is low. While in high rainfall areas its germination power is very high. Parthenium have higher seed viability as its seeds remains viable for more than 2 years. Its plant produces such type of allelochemicals which inhibit the growth of other plant. It requires 12 to 27OC for its germination. On water availability it germinates in 4 to 7 days.
EFFECT ON HUMAN HEALTH
It is reported through scientific research, its pollen can cause asthma and other respiratory diseases. Its hairs can cause allergic reactions in human body. All parts of plant are hazardous for human health.
HAZRADOUS FOR AGRICULTURE
It produces many allelochemicals and poisonous materials which are harmful for nearly growing plants. It can cause low yield in fodder and other field crops. It competes with field crops not only for nutrients and water but also harbors for mealy bug and virus. It produces carbon dioxide which reduces the rate of nitrogen fixation.
- It is controlled through biological control agent like Zygogramma bicolorata in Pakistan and also a fungus is used for controlling purpose
- Extension programs should be started in whole country for the awareness of harmful effects of this weed.
- On germination it is rooted out from field by wearing gloves in hand and it is removed out before flowering stage.
- Civil societies NGO,s and extension workers should start awareness program so that this weed is controlled through individual power.
- In rural areas this weed is destroyed before flowering stage and should given awareness program to the peoples of rural areas.
- After rouging this weed is collected and burned
- Through crop rotation this weed is controlled and it can be used as green manure.
- Through chemical control apply Glyphosate @ 1 liter in 120 liters of water is used
- Flower basket containing Parthenium flower should be discouraged.
This weed is spreading very quickly in our country its developmental power is very high as compared to other plants so this is the problem of the whole country not an individual person. The government should put an eye on this issue.Everyone should disseminate this information of this weed to farming community so that we can control this hazardous weed from our contry.Otherwise it is curse for Environment and Country.