SYSTEMIC RESEARCH APPROCHES ON ZIKA VIRUS AND ITS CONTROL MEASURES
Shehbaz Sharif1*, Amir Sohail1, Asim Munawar1, Burhan Ahmad1, Muhammad Usman1, Muhammad Mohsan
Department of Entomology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad.
Corresponding author1*: Haadikhan822@gmail.com
Zika is a viral infection that is usually spread by the bite of an infected mosquito. It can also spread by having sex with an infected man. . Outbreaks typically occur in tropical Africa and southeast Asia. In May 2015, first outbreak of Zika was reported by Brazil in Americas. Zika is now present in many tropical areas.People most often get Zika through the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito. This is the same mosquito that spreads dengue and chikungunya. People can also get Zika by having unprotected sex with an infected man.
SYMTOMS OF ZIKA VIRUS
The most common symptoms of zika virus are fever, rash, joint pain or red eyes. Other common symptoms include muscle pain and headache. Symptoms usually begin two to seven days after being bitten by an infected mosquito and last several days to a week. Hospitalization and deaths from Zika are unusual, but a nerve disorder, Guillain-Barré Syndrome, can rarely follow an infection. The biggest concern is related to birth defects that have been seen when pregnant women become infected. A birth defect that is a sign of incomplete brain development, and possibly other problems such as miscarriage and stillbirth.
Zika, dengue and chikungunya cause the similar symptoms , but certain symptoms suggest one disease or another. Most Zika patients have skin rashes; Most dengue patients have a higher fever and more severe muscle pain; Most chikungunya patients have a higher fever and more intense joint pain in the hands, feet, knees, and back.Zika virus transmitted person to person sexual and travelled to infected areas.
There is no specific treatment for Zika. Symptoms are treated by getting rest, drinking fluids to prevent dehydration and taking medicines such as acetaminophen or paracetamol to relieve fever and pain. Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), like ibuprofen and naproxen, should be avoided until dengue can be ruled out to reduce the risk of increased bleeding.The best way to prevent Zika is to avoid mosquito bites when traveling to an area where Zika is present.
Use an EPA-registered insect repellent. Many insect repellents are safe for pregnant women and children to use, but be sure to check the product label for any warnings and follow the instructions closely. When indoors, use air conditioning, window screens or insecticide-treated mosquito netting to keep mosquitoes out of the home. Reduce the number of mosquitoes outside the home or hotel room by emptying or routinely changing standing water from containers such as flowerpots, pet dishes and bird baths. Weather permitting, wear long sleeves and pants when outdoors. Couples with men who have confirmed Zika or symptoms of Zika should consider using condoms or not having sex for at least six months after symptoms begin.