The land which is covered under the green or woody vegetation is called the forest. FAO reported in 2006 that about four billion hectares or approximately 30 percent of the total area of the earth is covered under the green vegetation.
(Raintree 1983; Scherr1992; Sanchez1995) reported that through the using of agroforestry system, we enhance the sustainability of the land. Agroforestry is the technique through which we enhanced the productivity per unit area. (Current et al. 1995; Buckles and Triomphe 1999; Barrett et al. 2002; Franzel and Scherr 2002) showed in their results that with the passage of time the adaption ratio of the agroforestry is enhancing over the two decades. Limitations are there in the adaptation process of the agroforestry but we can overcome the problems through the scienficand and development program of the agroforestry (Adesina and Chianu 2002; Alavalapati et al. 1995; Bannister and Nair 2003; Lapar and Pandey 1999; Nair 1996; Sanchez 1995; Thacher et al. 1997). Pakistan is famous as a country in which the agriculture is the backbone, having the direct relationship with the more than 50% people. According to the economic survey 2013-14 about the 4.2 million ha area of Pakistan is under the trees. According to the FAO report 25% of the area of the country should be covered under the forest but unfortunately Pakistan is considered in the forest poor countries of the world, Pakistan have only 4.8% forest of the total area.
Now a day Pakistan is considered in the hot listed countries of the world where the climate changed is so repaid.
Importance of the forest
A Tree is the armor who saves us against the harsh conditions. Not only the forest provide the fire wood, forage, timber and many plants which are used for the purpose of medicine but also the forest increase the productivity and fertility of the land. `Forest provides the raw material for the paper industry; plywood sports goods and also provides the chance of cottage industry. Forest not only provides the raw material for the industry but also responsible for upgrading the living status of the people who based on the forest for earning money.
Forest responsible for the rains and removed the uncertainty of the climate. It supports the soil and enhanced the flora and fauna which are very important for the sustainability of the earth environment and human also.
Requirement of the Forest
Now all the requirements of human are directly or indirectly concerned with the forest wealth. The economic growth of an agricultural country (Pakistan) is based on Agro-forest production & its distribution. Trees gave excellent raw material for industries.
The population rate in Pakistan 2.61% pushing the Percentage of forest down, at present it is demand of time to grow as more as we can plants in field. For this purposes formers should encourage to plant trees on farmland and waste land for the amendment to the soil and environment also.
Importance of forest in Pakistan
Forest is very important and plays an important role in the economic development of Pakistan. Environmental scientist called the forest to green gold of country. Importance of the forest can be judge by following:
Foreign Exchange Source:
Different kinds of things like honey, timber and woody oil which are non-wood things also get from Agro- foresty which can be export to other countries. So it is also a source of foreign exchange. Forest has the 0.3% share to GDP.
Many industries like furniture, Sailiculture, sports goods and paper industry gets their raw material from forest. Forest has plays a vital role in the economic development of industries.
According to the Economic Survey about five hundred thousand (5, 00000) workers are employed in forestry& its concerned industries like village carpentry, logging and manufacture of timber component for the contrition industry.
Source of fuel:
Forest provide 32% of Pakistan’s total energy needs in the form of fuel wood. Forest are sourse of fuel for domestic and industrial consumption. Because it is cheap source of energy so its contribution is more as compared to oil &electric.
As the growth rate of or country increase day by day the climatic condition of Pakistan’s also effect day by day. Only Forest make the climate more clear and pleasnt.so population problem can be solved by increasing forest area.
Source of Government income:
Pakistani government earns a lot of income from the forest. The sale of timber products of forests add to the revenue.
Attraction of tourists:
Hilly areas in Pakistan due to their greenery and bundle of plants attract the tourist and earn foreign exchange for the country.
All the human life is directly or indirectly gets the benefits from the forest. Beside the greenery and nature of forest, tress are helpful for increasing the economy of country. Pakistan annual wood requirement is about 22 million cubic feet in the shape of timber wood but our country is produce only 11 million cubic feet. We have lack of forest as our needs but this can be over com by afforestation practice. It is estimated that if we want afforestation program to overcome or to increase the forest according to our needs then it will required 100 years to raise the present situation.
Forest importance toward environment
Climatic conductions in our country induced by use of forest and tree has been aggregated, Pakistan is most effected region in Asia to which main concern has been given to cooperation and implimitation by the United Nation Convention to combat Desertification and drought. Tress plantation in Pakistan increase the productivity of land and soil. The most important activity in desertification control is stabilize sand dunse.This activity has been adopt in West Africa in North Africa and in Asia (India, iran,etc).
- Forest shield one of many issue which effect climate at the worldwide level as well as regionally and locally.
- Forest are source of edible products including honey, fungi, meat, mushroom, forage for livestock .many species are also medically important.
- Forests offer habitat for plants and animals and they affect the level and timing of water flowing out of the forested area as well as rates of soil shape or erosion.
- Forests are one of a number of important elements in the global cycling of CO2, O2, and many other gases which influences the composition of the earth’s atmosphere.
- All over the world, forests have been a source of inspiration for people who live in forest or near them and have known forests, forest woods or even individual trees as sacred objects.
Forest provides many ecological and environmental services. In most cases, the forest environment is one component in a complex communication in which factors such as location, area of the forested area, geology, flora and fauna activities all play a role. Different clarifications of the significance of forests in problems such as climate change, water flow in streams, or soil erosion are often related to the difficulty of measuring the role of forest ecosystems in the phenomenon in question.
The global climate differ with changes in the polar ice caps, in external and internal surface temperatures of the waters, by absorption, reflection and transmission of energy in the form of heat and from the surface of the land. About nearly two thirds of the surface of the globe is covered by water (oceans) and the polar ice caps, these, rather than forests and other land features, are the most significant physical features of the globe affecting climate.
Forest cover disturbs the absorption, reflection and transmission of light and heat from the surface of the ground, and of water from the forest due to processes of evaporation and transpiration. On a global scale, very large areas of forest appear to have an admirable effect on climate and precipitation, although small areas of forest do have some effects on local climates.
Archaeologically, it was believed that the presence of forests play a vital role in rain or in increasing rainfall. About the last 45 years, it has become possible to say the movements of water vapor and atmospheric gases to develop a clearer idea of the role played by forests in moderating or regulating rainfall. In moderate regions and hot regions such as Southeast Asia, the main source of water vapor in the atmosphere is from evaporation at the surface of the oceans. In the Amazon Basin, however, nearly fifty present of water vapor in the environment in the region of Manaus and Belem appears to be ‘recycled’ from the forest.
Forest plays a role in regulation cycles of water flow. Since factors such as density of foliage, temperature, and the decomposed vegetation layer on the forest floor, absorption of soils, slope and geology all infuse the water flow, it is impossible to state definitely that forests increase or decrease flow of water. It would be to say, that forest cover does moderate the effects of factors such as rapid snowmelt, decreasing the likelihood of downstream water flow and increase the time during which waters flow can recharge underground reserves.
According to The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) says that water cycling is most important environmental services provided by forests areas.
“Water cycling is another important environmental service of forests. One of the probable effects that would result from a significant increase of the extent of cutting of trees in Amazonia and other parts of Brazil would reduce in precipitation, especially during the dry season. Same effects have been intended for the effects of forests on rainfall in the Pakistan subcontinent, and tropical forest defense has been shown to produce drought mitigation and flood mitigation benefits in Indonesia”
During photosynthesis, plants take CO2 and convert in it to carbon and O2. Forests have a significant environmental function in fixing and storing C from the atmosphere. Increasing concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere seems to be one of the aspects leading to changes in the climate, so that there is growing attention in the role of forests as a promising factor in mitigating global climate change.
“Every year, as plants grow and rise their biomass, plants absorb C from the atmosphere and store it in plant tissue. This process is called carbon sequestration. Despite constant exchanges of C between forest, soils, and the environment, a large amount is always save in plants leaves and woody parts, roots, and soil nutrients. This amount of C is known as the carbon store. Carbon sequestration and storage decrease the rate at which CO2 accumulates in the atmosphere and mitigate global warming. Forests sequester and store more “C” than any other ecosystem, and create an important natural defense against the change in climate.”
Pakistan has about 4.2 million ha of planted trees and agro forest. This is about 4.8% of the total land area. Pakistan is comparatively forest poor. Today all the necessities of human life are directly or indirectly connected with the forest wealth. The high population rate in Pakistan 2.61% pushing the figure down and, at present it is possible to grow as more as we can plants. Forest are very important and play a vital role in the economic development of our country. Forest is also called green gold of country. Forest provide 32% of Pakistan’s total energy needs in the form of fuel wood.
Pakistan annual wood requirement is about 22 million cubic feet in the shape of timber wood but our country is produce only 11 million cubic feet. Forest plantation in Pakistan increase the productivity of land and soil. Forest provides many ecological and environmental services. Forest cover disturbs the absorption, reflection and transmission of light and heat from the surface of the ground, and of water from the forest due to processes of evaporation and transpiration. Forest plays a role in regulation cycles of water flow. Forests play a vital role in rain or in increasing rainfall. Water cycling is another important environmental service of forests. Increasing concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere seems to be one of the aspects leading to changes in the climate, so that there is growing attention in the role of forests as a promising factor in mitigating global climate change.
Imran Ramzan*, Arslan Shehroz1, Muhamamd Zunair Latif2,
Author * Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture Faisalabad
1&2 Co-author Department of Plant pathology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad