Drip Irrigation – A Water Saving Technique
University of Agriculture Sub Campus Vehari
Agriculture has great importance in the economy of Pakistan, because 21% of national GDP consist of agriculture. From previous few years production of important crops have been increased but it is difficult to overcome the necessities of food and raw material for industries due to highly increasing population .due to provincial water distribution agreement ,Punjab annually get 58 million acre feet water from dams and rivers, while approximately 25 to 35 % annual available water is loss during irrigation through streams , canals and in the fields due to seepage and evaporation etc. due to 140% increasing sowing of crops in Punjab the minimum water requirement is65 million acre feet , so it is necessary to use latest irrigation methods for efficient use of available water . According to the agriculturist’s water and other production material is saved about 50 and 35 % respectively and production of crops increased about 20 to 30 % by lining the water channels and by laser land leveling and by using the drip and sprinkler irrigation method.
From previous few years Govt. of Punjab has started PIPIP by the help of bank. By this project water channels are lined, application of drip and sprinkling irrigation and training of farmers for latest methods of cultivation have been done. This project shows very effective results. It is also the duty of the farmers that they remain in contact with agriculture scientist for further information and knowledge.
The basis characteristics of drip irrigation system are the proper availability of water, nutrients, fertilizers and other chemical materials to the root system of plats drop by drop by the help of pipe line network at proper time.it saves water, fertilizers and increase the production of crop. Drip irrigation is an important method of irrigation to overcome the scarcity of water and also increase the production. Drip irrigation is usually used for profitable crops like vegetables, orchards, cotton, sugarcane and wheat .drip irrigation is very effective in those areas where availability of canal water is very low and underground water is unfit for agriculture. By the help of this method farmer has complete control on whole irrigation system. Water and fertilizer are provided to the crop in accurate amount and in proper time. Cropping becomes a business today.
Drip irrigation system has following four parts
- Filtration system
It consist of basis gravel filter, hydrocyclon filter, secondary filtration, disc filter and screen filter unit that filter all the types of particles. Sand particles separated from water are collected in a tank attached blew the filter unit. These filters are cleansed by back flushing.
- Fertigion unit
Fertilizer provided to the plants by fertilizer injector or ventury. Different types of chemicals (acids and chlorine) are used to clean this system.
- Pipe network or drip line
This part consist of main and sub main lines .by the help of drip line water and fertilizer are always available at proper time and in accurate quantity. Drip lines have many kinds and are selected according to the quantity of water.
Benefits of drip irrigation
- Water losses due to evaporation decreased and water goes to maximum depth, due to this system of irrigation the water use efficiency increased.
- The loss of fertilizers is decreased because fertilizers are mixed with water in drip irrigation system. The efficiency of fertilizers increased from 90 to 95% and is available for plants at any time any stage.
- By drip irrigation plants get water, air, and other nutrients according to their need. Plants grow without any pressure, rapid growth of crops occurs and per acre productivity also increased.
- Production is increased due to availibity of water and nutrients at right time in accurate quantity.
- Water is available only for plants not for weeds so the growth of weeds also decreased and production of crop increased.
- The costs of labor also decreased because only one person is enough to irrigate the whole field.