Site specific crop management (SSCM) is a farming management concept which is based upon observing, measuring and responding to inter or intra-field variability in crops .It is one of many modern farming techniques which can make production more efficient. And to ensure soil conservation practices also. With the SSCM farmers can take a better yield, the soil will also least disturbed and there will not be depletion of resources or minerals. SSCM can also be said to be the ‘site specific agriculture’ or ‘precision agriculture’. Farmers took large fields then divide them into small patches so that no misapplication of products occurs. By SSCM crop and farm efficiency will also increase. Farmers who use SSCM practices, they use weather data, humidity, soil temperature, growth and other factors for crop rotation. They also manage the irrigation rates so that no salts accumulate on the soil surface. Some farmers use the modern technique like GPS, computer operated tractors and harvesters. They also use modern practices such as aerial imagery, soil sample collection, soil type and potential yield etc.to divide large fields into small units to reduce waste and increase production. Sensors are also placed throughout the field, these sensors detect even the micro changes in the plant or in the soil and by detecting these changes, sensors send the information to the centers. Centers collect data from the fields and process it in real times and help the farmers to decide about planting, fertilizing, irrigation and harvesting. Now sensors are connected to the drip or other type of irrigation system which is computer operated. The sensors detect the changes and irrigation system works and give exact quantity of water needed to the place where it is needed. Fertilizers are also applied by irrigation system and sensors work for it also. Insecticides and weedicides are applied when needed and are inspected by sensors and they are applied when aerial imagery shows their need. Farmers use soil data to analyze their fields and to know that where soil is better, have better nutrients and a good water holding capacity they grow a dense crop there or where soil is poor farmers grow crops according to the soil conditions. Crops perform better on the both types and soil will be least disturbed also. In weaker plots farmers can grow grasses for grazing of cattle. By precision agriculture OR SSCM practices farmers can produce better yield and can conserve soil also. It is a technique to ensure food security because we can take more yields from the lands we have.
AUTHOR: HASEEB ARSHAD, ZEESHAN TARIQ, MUHAMMAD ARSALAN, SOBAN RAUF
UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTRE FAISLABAD