Impacts of Calcium Carbonate and Maturity Indices on Shelf Life of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicom)
Muhammad Mueed1, Rashad Mukhtar Balal1, Muhammad Adnan Shahid1,3, Muhammad Zubair1 and Mujahid Ali2
- Department of Horticulture, University College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha
- Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
- Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food & Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Florida, USA.
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is the most widely consumed vegetable all over the globe. It belongs to the solanaceae family, it is good resource of vitamins A and C as well as necessary nutrients and minerals. Tomato ranks first among all vegetables and fruits in the U.S. diet as a basis of minerals and vitamins (Tanksley & Rick, 1980). It is rich in anthocyanins (red pigments) filling which have been exposed to lessen ache and irritation and help in opposition to feeling ailment and diabetes. Although, a tropical plant, tomato is cultivated, all around the world. Worldwide, tomato production was 141.4 million metric tons out of 4.98 million hectares (2016). The major tomato producing countries are U.S.A, India, China, Egypt, Turkey, Iran and Italy. In Indo-Pak region, British at the start of 19th century introduce tomato(García et al., 2014). The first written report about tomato farming in India appeared in 1832 in a book “Flora Indica” written by William Roxburgh, while initial article mentioning tomato farming in Punjab (Pakistan) appeared in a book “Plants of the Punjab” creature written by Bamber, in 1916 (McCue, 1952).
In Pakistan, tomato is being cultivated on 0.0534 million hectares with an average production 0.562 million Metric tons. Tomato belongs to the family (solanaceae), the majority inconsistent of every yield families regarding horticultural utility and the most profitable in term of vegetable products. In Pakistan 80.0 million hectares of the overall geological region has distinguished canal-irrigated system, which covers an area of 19.43 million hectares of the Indus basic. The salt exaggerated soils are mostly situated in this plain. In Pakistan salt affected land has been reported 6.30 million hectare (Akbari & Sheybanifar, 2010). These brackish lands are separated interested in various module based upon the occurrence of high attention of unequal sodium ions e.g. saline soil, sodic soil and saline sodic soils. The foliar use of a few mixes has been demonstrated advantageous to enhance the nature of foods grown from the ground to physiological issue (Alcaraz-López et al., 2005). Calcium is crucial for development in development of plants. Its inclusion is key in plant cell division, stretching and porousness of cell layers. Generous measure of calcium is essential for typical working of plant layers. Development of calcium pectate because of the coupling of calcium with pectin’s has been discovered helpful to build the quality of cell divider and center lamella which enhance the natural product quality. (Carpita et al., 2001).
Calcium likewise assumes an essential part in enhancing the nature of tomato by expanding the immovability, diminishing the physiological issue, postponing maturing process and delaying the timeframe of realistic usability of tomato (Sharma et al., 1996). Post-harvest misfortunes of products of the soil are a matter of sympathy toward every one of those nations whose economy is in light of agribusiness. As this happens in every creating nation that leafy foods are amazingly perishable item that require to be managed much want to diminish misfortunes. On account of its high dampness contents, green harvests are innately more defenseless to weakening particularly under higher temperature conditions. They are organically dynamic and do transpiration, breath, aging and other biochemical exercises, which bring about quality crumbling.
Storage and improving the post-harvest life of fruits and vegetables is essential to extend their marketing period, for long distance transportation and for regulating their supply to the market. The storage life of fruit could be enhanced by pre cooling, cold storage and with other post- harvest treatments(Thompson, 2010). About 30-50% fruit lost after harvesting because of inappropriate handling and preservation(Yahia et al., 2003). The fruit quality is not only improved by pre-harvest practices but it can also be improved by some postharvest operations (Kader & Rolle, 2004). For fruits like tomato, postharvest handling is as critical as production practices due to their delicate nature. Postharvest losses may occur at any stage from harvesting during storage and selling to final deliverance to the consumer. Due to its climacteric nature, tomato is highly perishable especially in subtropical and tropical areas. The primary reason of post yield losses of new horticultural merchandise are diverse in common sonata, physiology, developmental stages and morphological arrangement, however the major causes are nonstop expansion processes and biochemical actions, mechanical damage, physiological disorders, water loss% and pathological breakdown (Zhu & Zhou, 2007).
The fresh merchandise like fruits or vegetables has less storage life, after which they become spoiled and not able to use. So, there is need to improve their shelf life by some other methods like using some chemicals or films, packaging’s and coatings etc. Now a day’s film and coating materials got attention because of their consequences and ability of rising ridge life. The polish coatings have huge possessions on food excellence, not just increases ridge existence of food but also preserve their value, usual flavor, configuration and taste plus appearance. It also prevents crop from harmful microorganisms, physical wounded and harsh chemical, natural, and physical changes as well. Like preservation of the product at high relative humidity (RH) and low temperature, under controlled environment situation or in customized impression packaging (MAP). The most important issue in mainly cases is that each practice has its own merits and demerits .That’s why protection of the supremacy of fresh commodity is still a big challenge for the food industry (Kader, 2003).
Artificial wax and chemical like calcium carbonate and sodium chloride are applied with adequate thickness and consistency to protect against biological organism and to prevent anaerobic respiration. The application of wax seals the scratches and injuries by coating and improves its appearance and makes fruit more acceptable to market. For utilization of fruit during off season it is necessary to improve its shelf life(Mahajan et al., 2010). Use of chemicals and modified atmosphere packaging increase the shelf life of fruits by delaying senescence and reducing respiration charge (Sams, 1999). MAP and use of different chemicals has in becoming a popular method to preserve foods for a lengthy time. In modified atmosphere packaging the gasses use depend upon the scenery of product. Some products may not give most wanted consequences in ambiance generated about it. In this covering fabric soaring carbon dioxide and low oxygen level is maintained. The present study will aim to find the effect of calcium fertilizer and maturity indices on shelf life of tomato.