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CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS REALITIES FOR PAKISTAN

CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS REALITIES FOR PAKISTAN by Ali Hassan Shabbir Manager Policy, Freshwater World Wide Fund for Nature, Pakistan     Abbreviations: WWF – P    World Wide Fund for Nature – Pakistan   CC    Climate Change   GCISC    Global Change Impact Studies Center   GDP    Gross Domestic Product   …

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Preparation of Butter

Objectives: 1. To study different types of churns. 2. Churning principles. 3. Washing, working and packaging and storage of butter. 4. To judge the quality of butter. Relevant information: Butter is defined is a fat concentrate product obtained by churning, cream, gathering fat into a compact mass and working it. …

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Preparation of Lassi

Objectives:To extend the use of dahi for preparation of Lassi, butter milk beverage.To evaluate the quality of lassi.Relevant information:Lassi is the by-product of deshi butter prepared in house-holds and called chhas or matha. Lassi is appreciated throughout the country as beverage for its palatability and as thirst quenching/refreshing drink. It …

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Preparation of Ghee

Objectives: To prepare ghee form butter/cream To study the quality of Ghee. Relevant information: Ghee is clarified butter fat.  It is prepared on both small and large scale, Deshi method of ghee making comprises more than 90% if Indian Ghee production. The Ghee is prepared b fermenting whole milk to …

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Preparation of Ice-cream by Hand Freezer

Objectives: 1. To know the method of preparation of Ice-cream by hand freezer on home laboratory scale. 2. To evaluate the quality of Ice-cream. 3. To estimate the over run in Ice-cream preparation. Relevant information: Ice cream may be defined as a frozen dairy product made by suitable blending and …

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Preparation Kulfi

Objectives:To know the traditional method of Kulfi preparation and to judge its quality.Relevant information:It is indigenous form of ice-cream. It is composed of milk malai with sugar, fruit juice with sugar. It is popular frozen product in weaker section of the society.Precautions:1. The product is risky for consumption. It is not …

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Preparation of Channa / Cheese

Objectives:1. To know the method of preparation of acid coagulated milk product.2. To judge the quality of product.Relevant information:Channa refers to the milk solids obtained by acid hot milk and subsequent drainage of whey. The acids commonly used are lactic or citric in both natural and chemical form. Channa is …

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Preparation of Paneer

Objectives: To acquaint with manufacturing technology of Paneer.Relevant information: Paneer refers to the indigenous variety of acid coagulated milk solids. Panner is extensively used as an ingredient with vegetables in Northern India. Analogous to Paneer is cottage cheese prepared by acid coagulation in Western Countries. Precautions: 1. Use buffalo milk …

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Preparation of Khoa

Objectives:To concentrate milk into dough mass by desiccation.To assess the quality of concentrated dough mass (khoa).Relevant information:In India the quantity of milk available in flush season for exceeds to actual requirements. Under the tropical climate of our country and with limited facilities of storage, the excess of milk cannot be …

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Preparation of Basundi

Objectives:To prepare partially desiccated sweetened milk (Basundi) for direct consumption.To evaluate its qualityRelevant information:Milk based sweet meats such as Rabri, kheer, khurchan etc. are popular in Uttarpradesh, Punjab, Rajashthan, Bengal and Maharashtra to some extent. Basundi is another sweet meat largely produced in Maharashtra and Gujrat. It is an indigenous …

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