The exclusion of anything like harmful substance which negative effects on nature and life is called pollution. It is exists when different types of pollutants enter into the water bodies by direct or indirect ways with harmful compounds which make water bodies contaminated. Pollutants enter into water bodies by human activities it is actually major or main reason. Water pollution is cause by direct and indirect ways or it is said to be point or non point source.
Water is very precious and major resource for nature and it is basic need of life. It covers 70% area of earth surface. Water pollution cause many problems worldwide in drinking water, lakes, rivers, and ocean. It not only cause problem to a single individual but also disturb the whole population. It also disturbs the mechanism of ecosystem which is present in water bodies.
Now a day the living peoples are well aware about the water pollution and admire the value of clean water that clean water is more important and precious thing for life. Recently many foundations are developing which are working for water protection to save water and prevent from any toxic or hazardous substance which causes pollution in water. And also protect the life or ecosystem inside the water bodies.
Types of water pollution:
Many variety of water pollution is present here, which are:
- Nutrients pollution:
Fertilizer and manures have large amount of nutrients which reached at water bodies by rain water and other source and cause eutrophication by favoring the growth of algae which consumed excessive oxygen in water which ultimately disturb the marine ecosystem and cause death of aquatic animals due lack presence of oxygen. Resultantly water is not able to use for drinking purpose.
- Surface water pollution:
When harmful substance such as chemicals are comes in contact with surface water it will cause surface water pollution.
- Oxygen Depleting:
micro organisms present in water bodies, when biodegradable matter end up in water in large amount it will boost the micro organisms growth which use more oxygen for their growth which cause oxygen depletion.
- Ground water pollution:
when excessive use of chemicals like pesticide and fertilizers it cause ground water pollution by leaching down.
- Microbiological pollution:
It take place when people use untreated drinking water, sometime this pollution naturally occur in water due to presence of viruses bacteria and protozoa which cause death in aquatic fauna and cause serious health hazards.
- Chemical water pollution:
It is caused by chemical industries and peoples which are working with chemicals that end up into water bodies. This pollution cause death in many aquatic animals and effect their development and also cause infertility in them. (eschooltoday)
Fazal Hussain, Urooj Naz, Muhammad Nouman
University College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha.