The parasites of insects

Many parasites and disease-causing pathogens are known to attack insects, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoans, nematodes, and mites.
The infective stages of most insect parasites must be consumed orally, although some can invade though pores or membranous joints in the insect cuticle. Many researchers are currently exploring the role of parasites and infectious diseases in regulating insect population size (E.G. Faeth and Simberloff 1981, Bowers et al. 1993, Jaenike 1998).
Insects can be parasited by many organisms such as:
-Insect parasites (parasitoids) of insects:
Such as: Anaphes species, Aphidius species, Aphytis spp, Bracon cushmani,Citrus mealybug parasite, Cottony cushion scale parasite, Cottony cushion scale parasite, Elm leaf beetle parasite, Encarsia formosa, Encarsia formosa, Hyposoter exiguae, Lysiphlebus testaceipes, Tachinid flies, Trichogramma spp., Trioxys pallidus…
-Nematode parasites:
Such as: Steinernema: S. carpocapsae, S. feltiae, S. riobravis,Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, H.  megidis…
-Protozoan parasites:
Such as: many species of Sarcodina, Flagellata, Infosoria, Sporozoa (CoccidaeNeogregarinida Cnidospora), Ophryocystis elektroscirrha and  Nosema species…
-Fungal parasites of insects:
Such as: Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana, B.tenella,Hirsutella thompsonii, Cordyceps militaris , Nomuraea rileyi, Paecilomyces farinosus, Lecanicillium lecanii, Coelomomyces spp, Paearia rileyi , Entomophthora sp.
-Bacterial parasits of insects:
Such as:
-Pseudomonas:Ps. aeruginosa, Ps. chlororaphis, Ps. reptilivora, Ps. septica, Ps. putida
-Proteus: Pr. vulguris, Pr. mirabilis, Pr. rettgeri.
-Clostridium: Cl. brevifaciens, Cl. malacosomae.
-Bacillus: B. popilliae, B. fribourgensis, B. lentimorbus, B. euloomarahae, B. cereus, B. Thuringiensis.
-And many others: Serratia marcescens,
-Viral parasites of insects:
Such as: NPV (nuclear polyhedrosis virus), GV (granulosis virus) and CPV (cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus).
Original Article Here
Muhammad Ramzan Rafique
Muhammad Ramzan Rafique

I am from a small town Chichawatni, Sahiwal, Punjab , Pakistan, studied from University of Agriculture Faisalabad, on my mission to explore world I am in Denmark these days..

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