A) Preventive measures against insect pests in our lodgings
More effective and extremely powerful insecticides are no doubt dangerous for the insects but their long-term effects to our bodies and environment are also hazardous, so careful prevention is the best policy. Although, many chemical pesticides wiped out the bad and the ugly bugs from the face of earth but their toxic effects badly affected human bodies. Keeping in view the famous phrase; “prevention is better than cure”, here are a few helpful steps that we should follow to avoid the appearance of insects in our lodgings.
1. Caulk and seal
Our first line of defence against insects in our houses should be to block their access routes. With the help of caulk, seal up cracks and crannies from where the insect might enter, including openings around pipes and heating ducts. Also weather-strip doors and windows.
2. Fix and clean
Eliminate areas that encourage termites and other insects, especially the areas where drainage is poor. Repair any rotted wood, if there is any in our house. Clean up and clear out areas that provide safe hiding place for insects. Stored food, liquids and garbage should be in sealed containers.
3. Look for problems timely
Early detection will be half battle. Generally, insects increase their population very quickly. If we suspect that termites or other house-eating insects may be present in our home, don’t wait for the problem to get worse. Though some termites take years to damage a house but there are few species that can even cause tremendous damage in a matter of months.
4. Professional inspection
Our best bet should be to call an insect-pest inspector to detect the location and extent of termites and other insects within the structure of a house or in any wooden architecture. We can also detect the presence of insects by the use of combination of probing, tapping, listening and looking. Sometimes inspectors may use fiber optic scopes that can peer inside a wall. Some even use dogs that can sniff out the presence of termites inside walls. After finding insect infestation, a good inspector will recommend one or more options for the eradicating of insects. If we have caught the problem early, the solution may be relatively simple and inexpensive.
Boric acid, a powder that’s relatively safe to use indoors, will treat small, localized infestations of ants, silverfish, firebrats, fleas and cockroaches. Be sure to follow the directions precisely written on the label.
B) General directions for the use of insecticides in orchards:
Although the chemical pesticides are more powerful against insect pests but these are longer lasting and may cause damages to the plants. The first choice in this category would be systemics that treat from the ground up (but don’t use them around children or pets).
Chlorpyrifos, a chemical pesticide that’s available in powdered (as well as liquid) form, will kill carpenter ants, powder post beetles, carpet beetles and a variety of other insects. It is specially used against termites. A strong spray from a hose may be enough to dislodge aphids, whiteflies, mites or other plant-sucking insects.
Insect soap spray, commercially-available, penetrates the waxy covering on many plant-sucking insects, suffocating them or attacking their nervous systems. Make your own by mixing 3 to 6 tablespoons of dishwashing soap with 1 gallon of water, but test for damage on part of a plant.
Organic pesticides such as includes pyrethrum, rotenone, sabadilla, BT (Bacillus thuringiensis), neem and horticultural oils are used for killing stubborn infestations of plant-sucking insects or heartier plant chewers such as beetles or caterpillars. Deadly to bugs but considered safe for humans, these are not as effective or long-lasting as chemical pesticides; but they’re safer to use. They generally must be re-applied every 7 to 10 days. Most of these are plant extracts that are deadly to insect pests of orchards.
The least toxic chemical pesticides are generally considered to include malathion, diazinon and carbaryl. Honeybees are toxic to Carbaryl, so be careful with it if you have hives of honey bees in your orchard. Honey bees are not only a source of income to farmers in the form of honey but they also act as pollinating agents and increase the yield.