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Environmental impact of pesticides




  • The environmental impact of pesticides is often greater than what is intended by those who use them. Over 98% of sprayed insecticides and 95% of herbicides reach a destination other than their target species, including nontarget species, air, water, bottom sediments, and food.[1] Though there can be benefits using pesticides, inappropriate use can counterproductively increase pest resistance and kill the natural enemies of pests. Many users are inadequately informed about potential short and long-term risks, and the necessary precautions in the correct application of such toxic chemicals are not always made.[2] Pesticides can contaminate unintended land and water when they are sprayed aerially or allowed to run off fields, or when they escape from production sites and storage tanks or are inappropriately discarded.[3]

    The amount of pesticide that migrates from the intended application area is influenced by the particular chemical’s properties: its propensity for binding to soil, its vapor pressure, its water solubility, and its resistance to being broken down over time.[4] Factors in the soil, such as its texture, its ability to retain water, and the amount of organic matter contained in it, also affect the amount of pesticide that will leave the area.[4] Some pesticides contribute to global warming and the depletion of the ozone layer.[5]

     

     

    Air[edit]

    Spraying a mosquito pesticide over a city

    Pesticides can contribute to air pollution. Pesticide drift occurs when pesticides suspended in the air as particles are carried by wind to other areas, potentially contaminating them.[6] Pesticides that are applied to crops can volatilize and may be blown by winds into nearby areas, potentially posing a threat to wildlife.[7] Weather conditions at the time of application as well as temperature and relative humidity change the spread of the pesticide in the air. As wind velocity increases so does the spray drift and exposure. Low relative humidity and high temperature result in more spray evaporating. The amount of inhalable pesticides in the outdoor environment is therefore often dependent on the season.[2] Also, droplets of sprayed pesticides or particles from pesticides applied as dusts may travel on the wind to other areas,[8] or pesticides may adhere to particles that blow in the wind, such as dust particles.[9] Ground spraying produces less pesticide drift than aerial spraying does.[10] Farmers can employ a buffer zone around their crop, consisting of empty land or non-crop plants such as evergreen trees to serve as windbreaks and absorb the pesticides, preventing drift into other areas.[11] Such windbreaks are legally required in the Netherlands.[11]

    Pesticides that are sprayed on to fields and used to fumigate soil can give off chemicals called volatile organic compounds, which can react with other chemicals and form a pollutant called tropospheric ozone. Pesticide use accounts for about 6 percent of total tropospheric ozone levels.[12]

     

    Water[edit]

    Pesticide pathways

    In the United States, pesticides were found to pollute every stream and over 90% of wells sampled in a study by the US Geological Survey.[13] Pesticide residues have also been found in rain and groundwater.[4] Studies by the UK government showed that pesticide concentrations exceeded those allowable for drinking water in some samples of river water and groundwater.[14]

    Pesticide impacts on aquatic systems are often studied using a hydrology transport model to study movement and fate of chemicals in rivers and streams. As early as the 1970s quantitative analysis of pesticide runoff was conducted in order to predict amounts of pesticide that would reach surface waters.[15]

    There are four major routes through which pesticides reach the water: it may drift outside of the intended area when it is sprayed, it may percolate, or leach, through the soil, it may be carried to the water as runoff, or it may be spilled, for example accidentally or through neglect.[16] They may also be carried to water by eroding soil.[17] Factors that affect a pesticide’s ability to contaminate water include its water solubility, the distance from an application site to a body of water, weather, soil type, presence of a growing crop, and the method used to apply the chemical.[18]

    Maximum limits of allowable concentrations for individual pesticides in public bodies of water are set by the Environmental Protection Agency in the US.[4][18] Similarly, the government of the United Kingdom sets Environmental Quality Standards (EQS), or maximum allowable concentrations of some pesticides in bodies of water above which toxicity may occur.[19] The European Union also regulates maximum concentrations of pesticides in water.[19]

     

    Soil[edit]

    Caution against entering a field sprayed with sulphuric acid

    Many of the chemicals used in pesticides are persistent soil contaminants, whose impact may endure for decades and adversely affect soil conservation.[20]

    The use of pesticides decreases the general biodiversity in the soil. Not using the chemicals results in higher soil quality,[21] with the additional effect that more organic matter in the soil allows for higher water retention.[4] This helps increase yields for farms in drought years, when organic farms have had yields 20-40% higher than their conventional counterparts.[22] A smaller content of organic matter in the soil increases the amount of pesticide that will leave the area of application, because organic matter binds to and helps break down pesticides.[4]

    Degradation and sorption are both factors which influence the persistence of pesticides in soil. Depending on the chemical nature of the pesticide, such processes control directly the transportation from soil to water, and in turn to air and our food. Breaking down organic substances, degradation, involves interactions among microorganisms in the soil. Sorption affects bioaccumulation of pesticides which are dependant on organic matter in the soil. Weak organic acids have been shown to be weakly sorbed by soil, because of pH and mostly acidic structure. Sorbed chemicals have been shown to be less accessible to microorganisms. Aging mechanisms are poorly understood but as residence times in soil increase, pesticide residues become more resistant to degradation and extraction as they lose biological activity.[23]

     

    Effect on plants[edit]

    Crop spraying

    Nitrogen fixation, which is required for the growth of higher plants, is hindered by pesticides in soil.[24] The insecticides DDTmethyl parathion, and especially pentachlorophenol have been shown to interfere with legumerhizobium chemical signaling.[24] Reduction of this symbiotic chemical signaling results in reduced nitrogen fixation and thus reduced crop yields.[24] Root nodule formation in these plants saves the world economy $10 billion in synthetic nitrogen fertilizer every year.[25]

    Pesticides can kill bees and are strongly implicated in pollinator decline, the loss of species that pollinate plants, including through the mechanism of Colony Collapse Disorder,[26][27][28][29] in which worker bees from a beehive or Western honey beecolony abruptly disappear. Application of pesticides to crops that are in bloom can kill honeybees,[6] which act as pollinators. The USDA and USFWS estimate that US farmers lose at least $200 million a year from reduced crop pollination because pesticides applied to fields eliminate about a fifth of honeybee colonies in the US and harm an additional 15%.[1]

    On the other side, pesticides have some direct harmful effect on plant including poor root hair development, shoot yellowing and reduced plant growth.[30]

     

    Effect on animals[edit]

    Pesticides inflict extremely widespread damage to biota, and many countries have acted to discourage pesticide usage through their Biodiversity Action Plans.[citation needed]

    Animals may be poisoned by pesticide residues that remain on food after spraying, for example when wild animals enter sprayed fields or nearby areas shortly after spraying.[10]

    Widespread application of pesticides can eliminate food sources that certain types of animals need, causing the animals to relocate, change their diet, or starve.[6] Poisoning from pesticides can travel up the food chain; for example, birds can be harmed when they eat insects and worms that have consumed pesticides.[6] Earthworms digest organic matter and increase nutrient content in the top layer of soil. They aid in protecting human health by ingesting decomposing litter and serving as bioindicators in soil activity while creating a richer environment. A number of studies have shown that pesticides have had harmful effects on growth and reproduction on earthworms, which are in turn consumed by terrestrial vertebrates such as birds and small mammals.[31] Some pesticides can bioaccumulate, or build up to toxic levels in the bodies of organisms that consume them over time, a phenomenon that impacts species high on the food chain especially hard.[6]

    Birds[edit]

    In England, the use of pesticides in gardens and farmland has seen a reduction in the number of Common Chaffinches

    The Fish and Wildlife Service estimates that 72 million birds are killed by pesticides in the United States each year.[32] Bald eagles are common examples of nontarget organisms that are impacted by pesticide use. Rachel Carson’s landmark bookSilent Spring dealt with the loss of bird species due to bioaccumulation of pesticides in their tissues. There is evidence that birds are continuing to be harmed by pesticide use. In the farmland of Britain, populations of ten different bird species declined by 10 million breeding individuals between 1979 and 1999, a phenomenon thought to have resulted from loss of plant and invertebrate species on which the birds feed.[33] Throughout Europe, 116 species of birds are now threatened.[33]Reductions in bird populations have been found to be associated with times and areas in which pesticides are used.[33] DDE-induced egg shell thinning has especially affected European and North American bird populations.[34] In another example, some types of fungicides used in peanut farming are only slightly toxic to birds and mammals, but may kill off earthworms, which can in turn reduce populations of the birds and mammals that feed on them.[10]

    Some pesticides come in granular form, and birds and other wildlife may eat the granules, mistaking them for grains of food.[10] A few granules of a pesticide is enough to kill a small bird.[10]

    The herbicide paraquat, when sprayed onto bird eggs, causes growth abnormalities in embryos and reduces the number of chicks that hatch successfully, but most herbicides do not directly cause much harm to birds.[10] Herbicides may endanger bird populations by reducing their habitat.[10]

     

    Aquatic life[edit]

    Using an aquatic herbicide

    Wide field margins can reduce fertilizer and pesticide pollution in streams and rivers

    Fish and other aquatic biota may be harmed by pesticide-contaminated water.[35] Pesticide surface runoff into rivers and streams can be highly lethal to aquatic life, sometimes killing all the fish in a particular stream.[36]

    Application of herbicides to bodies of water can cause fish kills when the dead plants rot and use up the water’s oxygen, suffocating the fish.[35] Some herbicides, such as copper sulfite, that are applied to water to kill plants are toxic to fish and other water animals at concentrations similar to those used to kill the plants.[35] Repeated exposure to sublethal doses of some pesticides can cause physiological and behavioral changes in fish that reduce populations, such as abandonment of nests and broods, decreased immunity to disease, and increased failure to avoid predators.[35]

    Application of herbicides to bodies of water can kill off plants on which fish depend for their habitat.[35]

    Pesticides can accumulate in bodies of water to levels that kill off zooplankton, the main source of food for young fish.[37] Pesticides can kill off the insects on which some fish feed, causing the fish to travel farther in search of food and exposing them to greater risk from predators.[35]

    The faster a given pesticide breaks down in the environment, the less threat it poses to aquatic life.[35] Insecticides are more toxic to aquatic life than herbicides and fungicides.[35]

    Amphibians[edit]

    In the past several decades, decline in amphibian populations has been occurring all over the world, for unexplained reasons which are thought to be varied but of which pesticides may be a part.[38]

    Mixtures of multiple pesticides appear to have a cumulative toxic effect on frogs.[39] Tadpoles from ponds with multiple pesticides present in the water take longer to metamorphose into frogs and are smaller when they do, decreasing their ability to catch prey and avoid predators.[39]

    A Canadian study showed that exposing tadpoles to endosulfan, an organochloride pesticide at levels that are likely to be found in habitats near fields sprayed with the chemical kills the tadpoles and causes behavioral and growth abnormalities.[40]

    The herbicide atrazine has been shown to turn male frogs into hermaphrodites, decreasing their ability to reproduce.[39] Both reproductive and nonreproductive effects in aquatic reptiles and amphibians have been reported. Crocodiles, many turtle species, and some lizards lack sex distinct chromosomes until after fertilization during organogenesis, depending on temperature. Exposure to various PCBs in the embryonic stage of development in turtles has shown to cause a sex reversal. Across the United States and Canada disorders such as decreased hatching success, feminization, skin lesions, and other such developmental abnormalities have been reported.,[41]

    Pesticides are implicated in a range of impacts on human health due to pollution

    Humans[edit]

    Pesticides can enter the human body through inhalation of aerosols, dust and vapor that contain pesticides; through oral exposure by consuming food and water; and through dermal exposure by direct contact of pesticides with skin.[42] Pesticides are sprayed onto food, especially fruits and vegetables, they secrete into soils and groundwater which can end up in drinking water, and pesticide spray can drift and pollute the air.

    The effects of pesticides on human health are more harmful based on the toxicity of the chemical and the length and magnitude of exposure.[43] Farm workers and their families experience the greatest exposure to agricultural pesticides through direct contact with the chemicals. But every human contains a percentage of pesticides found in fat samples in their body. Children are more susceptible and sensitive to pesticides[42] because they are still developing and have a weaker immune system than do adults. Children may be exposed due to their closer proximity to the floor and natural tendency to put contaminated objects in their mouth, and also because children tend to spend more time at home in a potentially contaminated environment. Hand to mouth contact will be dependent on the age of the child, much like lead exposure, typically from dust within the home. Children under the age of six months are more apt to experience exposure from breast milk and inhalation of small particles. Pesticides may be absorbed through dermal contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Pesticides tracked into the home from family members increase the risk of toxic pesticide exposure which is normally area specific. Also, toxic residue in food may contribute to a child’s exposure to a certain pesticide.[44] The chemicals can bioaccumulate in the body over time.

    Exposure to pesticides can range from mild skin irritation to birth defects, tumors, genetic changes, blood and nerve disorders, endocrine disruption, and even coma or death.[43] Developmental effects have been associated with pesticides. Recent increases in childhood cancers in throughout North America, such as leukemia, may be a result of genotoxic and nongenotoxic pesticides due to somatic cell mutations.[45] Insecticides targeted to disrupt insects can have harmful effects on the nervous systems of mammals, due to basic similarities in system structure. Both chronic and acute alterations have been observed in those who are exposed. Pesticides can act in the promotion and proliferation of cancer while causing hormone imbalance. DDT and its breakdown product DDE, with levels still present in the environment, despite its ban, are known to disturb estrogenic activity and possibly lead to breast cancer. Exposure to pesticides, for example DDT, in fetal stages has been proven to alter male penis size in animals to that much smaller than average as well as develop undescended testicles. Exposure to pesticides may occur in postnatal early stages of development, in utero, and even if either parent was exposed before conception took place. Reproductive disruption has the potential to occur by chemical reactivity and through structural changes to a system.[46]

     

    Persistent Organic Pollutants——

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are compounds that resist degradation and thus remain in the environment for years.[47] Some pesticides, including aldrinchlordaneDDTdieldrinendrinheptachlorhexachlorobenzenemirex, and toxaphene, are considered POPs.[47] POPs have the ability to volatilize and travel great distances through the atmosphere to become deposited in remote regions.[47] The chemicals also have the ability to bioaccumulate and biomagnify, and can bioconcentrate (i.e. become more concentrated) up to 70,000 times their original concentrations.[47]POPs may continue to poison non-target organisms in the environment and increase risk to humans[48] by disruption in the endocrinereproductive, and immune systemscancer; neurobehavioral disorders,[47] infertility and mutagenic effects, although very little is currently known about these chronic effects. Some POPs have been banned, while others continue to be used.

    Pest resistance[edit]

    Pests may evolve to become resistant to pesticides. Many pests will initially be very susceptible to pesticides, but some with slight variations in their genetic makeup are resistant and therefore survive to reproduce. Through natural selection, the pests may eventually become very resistant to the pesticide.

    Pest resistance to a pesticide is commonly managed through pesticide rotation, which involves alternating among pesticide classes with different modes of action to delay the onset of or mitigate existing pest resistance.[49]

     

    Pest rebound and secondary pest outbreaks[edit]

    Non-target organisms, organisms that the pesticides are not intended to kill, can be severely impacted by use of the chemicals. In some cases, where a pest insect has some controls from a beneficial predator or parasite, an insecticide application can kill both pest and beneficial populations. A study comparing biological pest control and use of pyrethroid insecticide for diamondback moths, a major cabbage family insect pest, showed that the insecticide application created a rebounded pest population due to loss of insect predators, whereas the biocontrol did not show the same effect.[50] Likewise, pesticides sprayed in an effort to control adult mosquitoes, may temporarily depress mosquito populations, however they may result in a larger population in the long run by damaging the natural controlling factors.[6] This phenomenon, wherein the population of a pest species rebounds to equal or greater numbers than it had before pesticide use, is called pest resurgence and can be linked to elimination of predators and other natural enemies of the pest.[51]

    Loss of predator species can also lead to a related phenomenon called secondary pest outbreaks, an increase in problems from species which were not originally very damaging pests due to loss of their predators or parasites.[51] An estimated third of the 300 most damaging insects in the US were originally secondary pests and only became a major problem after the use of pesticides.[1] In both pest resurgence and secondary pest outbreaks, the natural enemies have been found to be more susceptible to the pesticides than the pests themselves, in some cases causing the pest population to be higher than it was before the use of pesticide.[51]

    Eliminating pesticides[edit]

    Many alternatives are available to reduce the effects pesticides have on the environment. There are a variety of alternative pesticides such as manually removing weeds and pests from plants, applying heat, covering weeds with plastic, and placing traps and lures to catch or move pests. Pests can be prevented by removing pest breeding sites, maintaining healthy soils which breed healthy plants that are resistant to pests, planting native species that are naturally more resistant to native pests, and use biocontrol agents such as birds and other pest eating organisms.[52]

    There is much debate over alternative methods of controlling pesticides. In many instances, biological controls such as resistant plant varieties and the use of pheromones, have been successful and at times resolving a pest problem permanently.[53] Integrated Pest Management (IPM) has also been one practice in pest management which establishes chemical use on a need basis only. IPM is a more socially accepted practice and causes less harm to the health of humans and the environment. The focus is on the pest culture, life cycle, and role in the environment.[54]Biotechnology can also be an innovative way to control pests. Technological advances, such as genetically modified (GM) plants, may have a stronger resistance to pests and could eliminate pesticides use in the future.[53] However genetically modified crops designed to be pesticide-resistant have become the norm in the United States. For example, in 2010, 70% of all the corn that was planted was resistant to herbicides like glyphosate; 78% of cotton, and 93% of all soybeans.[55]

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