Hafiz Muhammad Bilal1*, Rabia Zulfiqar1, Rohoma Tahir1, Muhammad Adnan2.
1.Department of Horticulture, college of agriculture, university of Sargodha
2.Department of Agronomy, college of agriculture, university of Sargodha
Grapes are the fruit that grow on a woody vine. The grapevine belongs to the family Vitacae, which includes fourteen living, two fossils genera and more than a thousand species. Grapevine is one of the world’s major fruit crop and has the earliest recorded history. It has also been praised in “The Holy Quran”. The European grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is believed to have originated in the area between Black and Caspian seas, where it still grows wild. It is believed that it was introduced/dispersed throughout the Europe and later by explorer to all continents. Grapevines are perennial woody vines and its fruit is classified as berries. The inflorescences are generally located in a place of a tendril but are rarely axillary. The colour of berry can be black, pink, golden, green, purple, red or rarely white, while the flavours range from fruity, spicy and Muscat depending upon the variety. Grapevines are adapted to a wide range of soil types. However, heavy clay soil, shallow, sodic or poorly drained soils should be avoided. Grapes require ample soil moisture during the growing season either from rainfall or irrigation.
Grapevine is one of the world’s major fruit crop. Grape occupy a prominent place among temperate, sub-tropical and tropical fruits. The grape is one of the most delicious, refreshing and nourishing fruit, rich in sugars, acids, minerals, vitamins and tannins. Ripe berries are supposed to be best as table fruit. The grape was one of the first fruits to be cultivated by man. The cultivation of the domesticated grape began 6,000-8,000 years ago in the near east. Grapes are a type of fruit that grow in clusters of 15 to 300 and can be crimsom, black, dark blue, yellow, green, orange and pink. White grapes are actually green in color, and are evolutionarily derived from the purple grape.
For the best berry growth and development, grapes requires long warm to hot dry summer and cool rainy winter. The grapes producing regions in the world are generally divided into two groups such as areas with 18.7oC average temperature during mid-summer months below, which ripening is difficult and in areas with -1oC average of coldest months below, which winter killing may occurs. The quality of grapes depends on both biotic as well as abiotic factors.
In Pakistan, grapes are grown mostly in Balochistan and some districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa with annual production of 122 thousand tons having average yield of 19 tons ha-1 against the potential of 25 tons ha-1. Grapes can also be grown in central Punjab if suitable cultivars are available as monsoon rains at the time of berry ripening is the main barrier in successful cultivation of grapes.
The climactic variations in grape-growing regions accounts for the diversity of grapes germplasm, berry quality and other viticulture products. Environmental components such as temperature, sunshine, rain, soil and combinations of these affect chemical composition of grapes juice. Among various component of climate, the temperature is considered to be has major influence on grape composition and quality.
During berry growth and development, the climate plays an important role for berry maturity, ripening, development of physical, as well as chemical characteristics of the berry quality such as size, color, aroma, accumulation of anthocyanins. For the table grape industry, climate is a dominant contributor to quantity and quality of grapes. The maturity, ripening and harvesting time of grapes depend upon cultivar, geo-graphic location and agro-climatic conditions. Different table grapes cultivars have been found to have varying tolerance to temperature, heat stress, rainfall and their distribution through the season.