Wednesday , November 22 2017
Home / Articles / Pak Agri Outlook / Permaculture Plants: Hazelnuts (aka Filberts)

Permaculture Plants: Hazelnuts (aka Filberts)




  • One of the world’s most popular nuts… the Hazelnut
     

    Common Name: Hazel, Hazelnuts, Filberts
    Scientific Name: Corylus species
    Family: Betulaceae (the Birch family) or Corylaceae (the Hazel family) depending on the botanist

    Fresh Hazelnuts. This variety in England is called the Kentish Cobnut.
     

    Common Species:

    • American Hazel (Corylus americana) – large shrub
    • European Filbert or Common Hazel (Corylus avellana) – large shrub
    • Chinese Tree Hazel (Corylus chinensis) – large tree
    • Turkish Tree Hazel (Corylus columa) – large tree
    • Beaked Hazel (Corylus cornuta) – large shrub
    • California Hazel (Corylus cornuta californica) – tree
    • Himalayan Hazel (Corylus ferox) – tree
    • Asian or Siberian Filbert (Corylus heterophylia) – large shrub
    • Common Filbert (Corylus maxima) – large shrub
    • Asian Beaked Hazel (Corylus sieboldiana) – large shrub
    • Tibetan Hazel (Corylus tibetica) – tree
    • Trazel (Corylus x columoides) – large tree (hybrid of European Filbert and Turkish Tree Hazel)
    • Filazel/Hazelbert (Corylus x hybrids) – large shrub
    • Chinese Trazel (Corylus x vilmorini) – large tree

     

    Harvesting Hazelnuts
    Seed (Left), Seed in Husk (Center), Seeds in a bunch from the tree (Right)
     

    Description:
    The Hazels are a group of deciduous large shrubs to large trees that are best known for their edible nuts. They are also fantastic windbreak and living fence plants – they were the traditional boundary markers in England. They provide pollen, food, and shelter for wildlife, and their wood has a large number of uses. These are great plants to blur the boundary from wild to garden.

    European Filbert or Common Hazel (Corylus avellana)
     

    History:
    The Hazels are a genus of plants containing 14-18 species that are native to the northern temperate climates of the globe. Every species produces edible nuts, but some are larger and tastier than others especially the cultivars that have been developed in recent years.

    Trivia:
    See my previous articles on “What’s in a name? Hazelnuts vs. Filberts vs. Cobnuts” and “Eastern Filbert Blight

     
    Hazelnuts are used in a wide range of food and drink.
    Here is the Rogue Hazelnut Brown Nectar ale
     

    USING THIS PLANT
    Primary Uses:

    • Edible nuts – raw, dried, or cooked; the more developed varieties/hybrids have a better flavor
    • Oil can be pressed/expelled from the nuts
    • Dried nuts can be ground into flour


    Secondary Uses:

    • General insect pollen plant
    • Nut is a wildlife food of mammals and birds
    • Shrub forms provide shelter for wildlife
    • Windbreak
    • Edible hedge plant
    • Most species can be coppiced (every 6-15+ years)
    • Wood can be used for stakes, rods, thatching, fences, tools, handles, firewood, charcoal, etc.


    Yield: 11-25 lbs (5-11 kg) depending on the size of the plant
    Harvesting: Late Summer through early Autumn (late August – October). Nuts are either harvested from the ground or with nets while the tree is shaken.
    Storage: Dried nuts will store for many years

    The female (small and pink) and male (long and pale) catkins (flower clusters) on a Hazel
     

    DESIGNING WITH THIS PLANT
    USDA Hardiness Zone:

    • American Hazel (Corylus americana) – Zone 3
    • European Filbert or Common Hazel (Corylus avellana) – Zone 4
    • Chinese Tree Hazel (Corylus chinensis) – Zone 7
    • Turkish Tree Hazel (Corylus columa) – Zone 5
    • Beaked Hazel (Corylus cornuta) – Zone 3
    • California Hazel (Corylus cornuta californica) – Zone 4
    • Himalayan Hazel (Corylus ferox) – Zone 8
    • Asian or Siberian Filbert (Corylus heterophylia) – Zone 5
    • Common Filbert (Corylus maxima) – Zone 5
    • Asian Beaked Hazel (Corylus sieboldiana) – Zone 6
    • Tibetan Hazel (Corylus tibetica) – Zone 7
    • Trazel (Corylus x columoides) – Zone 5
    • Filazel/Hazelbert (Corylus x hybrids) – Zone 3
    • Chinese Trazel (Corylus x vilmorini) – Zone 5


    AHS Heat Zone: 3-9
    Chill Requirement: less than 100 up to 1,700 hours/units depending on the species and variety

    Plant Type: Medium to large-sized Shrubs; Medium to very large-sized Trees
    Leaf Type: Deciduous
    Forest Garden Use: Canopy Layer, Sub-Canopy (Understory) Layer, Shrub Layer
    Cultivars/Varieties: Many species and varieties available.

    Pollination: Many of the hybrids and improved varieties are self-fertile, but the undeveloped species require cross-pollination from at least one other variety/cultivar. All varieties will benefit (i.e. produce more nuts) when allowed to cross-pollinate. Note that many Corylus species will cross-pollinate with other varieties and species. Check with your supplier for more specific information since there are so many species and varieties and hybrids. Pollinated by wind.
    Flowering: Early Spring through Summer

    Life Span:
    Years to Begin Bearing: 3-4 years
    Years of Useful Life: 40-50 years, but likely much more for the larger tree species; also considering the suckering nature of the shrub species, new shoots will develop into plants to replace older plants thereby making the thicket’s lifespan indefinite.

    A large Hazelnut
     

    PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THIS PLANT
    Size:

    • American Hazel (Corylus americana) – 6-12 feet (1.8-3.5 meters) tall and 6-20 feet (1.8-6 meters) wide
    • European Filbert or Common Hazel (Corylus avellana) – 12-25 feet (3.5-7.5 meters) tall and 25 feet (7.5 meters) wide
    • Chinese Tree Hazel (Corylus chinensis) – 120 feet (36 meters) tall and 75 feet (22 meters) wide
    • Turkish Tree Hazel (Corylus columa) – 80 feet (24 meters) tall and 30 feet (9 meters) wide
    • Beaked Hazel (Corylus cornuta) – 6-12 feet (1.8-3.5 meters) tall and wide
    • California Hazel (Corylus cornuta californica) – 26 feet (8 meters) tall
    • Himalayan Hazel (Corylus ferox) – 33 feet (10 meters) tall
    • Asian or Siberian Filbert (Corylus heterophylia) – 23 feet (7 meters) tall
    • Common Filbert (Corylus maxima) – 19 feet (6 meters) tall and 16 feet (5 meters) wide
    • Asian Beaked Hazel (Corylus sieboldiana) – 16 feet (5 meters) tall
    • Tibetan Hazel (Corylus tibetica) – 50 feet (15 meters) tall
    • Trazel (Corylus x columoides) – 60 feet (18 meters) tall and 40 feet (12 meters) wide
    • Filazel/Hazelbert (Corylus x hybrids) – 12-15 feet (3.5-4.5 meters) tall and 12-20 feet (3.5-6 meters) wide
    • Chinese Trazel (Corylus x vilmorini) – 82 feet (25 meters) tall


    Roots: All the shrub forms have fibrous, suckering roots that will send up new shoots to form a clumping thicket
    Growth Rate: Medium to Medium-Fast


    Hedgerows, often of Hazels, were traditionally used as boundary markers in Britain.
     


    GROWING CONDITIONS FOR THIS PLANT
    Light: Prefers full sun
    Shade: Tolerates deep shade, but nut production is reduced proportionate to light reduction
    Moisture: Medium soil moisture preferred
    pH: most species prefer fairly neutral to alkaline soil (6.1 – 7.5)

    Special Considerations for Growing:
    Tolerates juglone (natural growth inhibitor produced by Black Walnut and its relatives). Consider using this tree as a buffer between your walnuts and other plantings.

    Propagation: Stool layering is common. Can divide suckers in early Spring. Usually grafted. Seeds need at 16-20 weeks stratification for germination.

    Maintenance:
    Minimal. May need to cut back the shoots from suckering roots if you do not want a thicket or hedge.

    Concerns:
    Some people have seasonal allergies to the pollen

    Original article Here

    About admin

    Check Also

    Aeroponic technique: an ultimate solution in food security

    Report Issue: * Suggest Edit Copyright Infringment Claim Article Invalid Contents Broken Links Your Name: …

    Leave a Reply

    Be the First to Comment!

    Notify of
    avatar
    wpDiscuz