IMPACT OF NEONICOTINOID INSECTICIDES ON BEES: A SYSTEMATIC RESEARCH APPROACH
Shehbaz Sharif 1*,Asim Munawar1, Aqsa Arshad1, Naeem Ahmed2*, Muhammad Waseem Shoukat3 , Waleed Afzal Naveed1
1 Department of Entomology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad
2 Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
3 Department of Plant Pathology, Bahauddin Zakariya University,Multan
Corresponding Author Email: [email protected]
Honey bees decline by using Neonicotinoid:
Honey bee known as good pollinator which travel from flower to flower .Honey bees contain “Pollen basket” which help to collect pollen. There are 2000 species of wild bees alone, plus many flies, moth, butterflies, wasp, birds and other animal that contribute pollination. Approximately 75 % word’s food crops depend on pollination. Pakistan is a unique country where all fours species of honey bee have been foraging under natural condition. Two of them are wild and make their next in open place i.e Apis dorsata Febricius and Apis florea Febricius. The other two make there next open side and domesticated to live in hives i.e Apis cerana Febricius and Apis mellifera Febricius.
There are many crops including vegetables, fruits, oil seed crops and nuts which are cross pollination in nature and fully depend on different pollinators. Agriculture production volume dependent on different pollinators which increased by 300 percent 50 years. Other side pollinators-dependent crops show little yield and growth than crops that do not depend on pollinators. Between US$235 billion and US$277 billion worth of annual global food production relies on direct contribution by pollinators. Oil seed crops like Brassica, canola crops fully depend on pollinators and honey bees play major role to increase the production of oil seed crop.
Neonicotinoids insecticides became available for use on different oil seed crops, gardens and ornamental crops in the mid 1990.Neonicotinoids is a pesticides groups which include imidacloprid ,Acitamaprid and thiamethoxam .These insecticides are systematic in nature and have long term protection against sucking and chewing insect pest .As a class neonicotinoids are estimated less toxic than organophosphate ,organochlorine and carbamate groups that have significant effect on nervous system of human, insects and other animals. Neonicotinoids are mostly used for seed dressing against sucking insects in all oil seed crop.This group also more use against Mustard aphid (Lipaphis erysimi) which is severe pest of mustard aphid.
During application of neonicotinoids which is have directly effect on the honey bees through contact action. Pollen and nectar may be contaminated by neonicotinoids which is pick up by honey bees with the help of pollen basket, during formation of honey these insecticides are mixed in honey which is consumed by human being. In this way cause different diseases in the human. With pollinators and global diversity is decline, and word wide neonicotinoids use expanding more risk robust assessments and risk management strategies are critically needed both are playing in this decline. Neonicotinoids have lethal and sub lethal effect on pollinators and other beneficial insects.
Use integrated pest management (IMP) Technique which helps to increase the population of honey bees and other beneficial insects and increase the predators which feed on pest of oil seed crops. Use of resistant varieties of oil seed crops which help to decrease the application pressure of neonicotinoids.