By. Muhammad Shahzad
In 18th century population of the world was increasing exponentially and labour wages were also on peak and food crops including pulses and cereals were not sufficient to fulfil the food requirements of people. Food scarcity was the main issue of the world. People were dying in famines across the world. so at that the main focus of food scientist and food companies was to increase the per hectare yield of cereals and legumes.
In 19th century worked started on developing high yield varieties to fulfill the food requirements of people. The Punjab is a cultural and fertile region spreading between Punjab (Pakistan) and Punjab (India). It is the region which pioneered ‘’GREEN REVOLUTON’’ in 1960s. The second factor behind green revolution was the agrochemical companies of Europe who wanted to sell their products during this change of field made fertilizer to synthetic fertilizer. By 1980, government motivated progressing farmers to use this ‘’miracle seed’’ developed by ‘’NORMAN BORLAGUE’’ Who got noble prize in 1970.in 1970 half of the total wheat was from the seeds of Norman dwarf varieties.
The distinctive characters of this variety was that they were very responsive to fertilizer and irrigation water. But the fact was in the absence of additional water and fertilizer its performance was not better than previously existing varieties and even in some cases its yield was worse than previous varieties.
Green revolution helped us to feed people and to produce food enough for the population of Pakistan even we exported our surplus wheat sometimes. The chance of famines reduced to negligible now days. Farmers doubled the yield per hectare. But there were some disadvantages of this change from old low yielding varieties to new fertilizer responsive dwarf varieties. Some of them will be discussed here.
genetic diversity of wheat was badly affected. Crops became susceptible to various diseases and due to reduced resistant if crop was attacked by any insect or disease which can infect one plant then whole crops would be wipe out in days.
The use of pesticides to cure diseases and insects increased the cost of crop inputs and also cause various health problems in human especially diseases related to eye and heart. Our environment got polluted by extensive use of these chemicals.
Soil becomes deficient of essential nutrients. water shortage is also a big question on the success of Green revolution as water table is decreasing day by day. Farmers with small land holdings could not survive in this modern agriculture as it increased the cost of inputs as well.
Over all green revolution did more bad than good to Punjab agriculture on one hand it helped farmers to get tremendous yield but on the other hand it also and scientist again compelling people towards organic farming to minimize the effects of that change. Farmers are advised to grow leguminous crops after few years of exhausting crops and biological should be in common use to control pests instead of using chemical control which is dangerous for human health. So organic fertilizers and biological control should be recommended to farmers for common practice to alleviate the effects of Green Revolution.
1.Vasylevs’ka, O.Consequences of the ‘GREEN REVOLUTION’in Punjab.
- Shiva V. The Violence of the Green Revolution: Ecological Degradation and Political Conflict in Punjab. – Debra Dun, 1989.