Significance of Safflower as Oilseed Crop in Pakistan
Arshad Ali1*, Sadia Ismail1, Muhammad Umair Yasin2 and Noman Nawaz3.
1Postgraduate Lab, Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
2Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
3Dairy Technology Lab, NIFSAT, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
*Corresponding author’s email: [email protected]
Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is locally known as kasumba has great potential to cultivate in present climatic conditions of Pakistan. It can be grown practically in every part of the globe and having capability to tolerate drought, hail storms, strong winds and ﬂooding drastic variable conditions due to the deep tap root system. Tap root system of this plant makes it an ideal crop for arid agricultural land or areas with seasonal rains. It is cultivated in Asia, North America and South America. Safﬂower is appreciated as multi-purpose oilseed crop that is still to be demoralized for its greater potential for oil and protein cake. As higher antioxidant activity reduces better solidity of safflower seed oil over prolonged storage period. Its oil is costly than sunflower and palm oil. Less rainfall areas of Punjab and KPK are suitable for the best production of safflower in the Pakistan.
Oilseed crops are mostly grown for edible oil included safflower, sunflower, rapeseed-mustard, groundnut, cotton, sesame and soybean. These crops also provide little cost renewable resource of high vital compounds such as phytochemicals and tocopherol. Seed oils are also vital source of nutritional ingredients associated to their fatty acid composition and tocopherol contents. The oil, rich in unsaturated fatty acids that supposed to be beneﬁcial agents due to the healthy vegetable oils, food, pharmaceuticals, livestock feeds, biofuels and other oleo-chemical industrial uses increasing its demand.
SIGNIFICANCE OF SAFFLOWER OIL:
Safflower oil have many benefits and advantages for human beings. Some of protruding health welfares are illustrated here.
- Cholesterol amending properties, prevention of atherosclerosis, acne, cure of pimples, other skin diseases, rhumatological problems, arthritis, osteoporosis, joint movement and hepatoprotective properties, controlling skin cancer, breast cancer, other melanoma based cancers, anabolic effects, anti-diabetic activities, anti-estrogenic activities, anti-inﬂammatory activities, triggering of prostaglandin F2 a metabolites immune modulatory activities, post-menstruation syndrome, prevention of atherosclerosis, ostischemic myocardial dysfunction, antioxidant effects, increased concentration of arachidonic acid after safﬂower oil supplementation.
- Safflower oil uses in different edible products to check the migration of moisture and thus make sure better shelf-life.
- Safﬂower oil is stable at lower temperature, making it appropriate for chilled food products manufactured and its oil does not produce smoke odor. The increased arachidonic acid results in the reduced incidence of diabetic embryopathy.
- Safflower oil used as a carrier in bioactive useful components delivery systems.
- The functional properties of safflower oil can be used to treat skin infections, bone related disorders, menopause and atherosclerosis.
- Safﬂower supplementation concentrated the malformation rates in maternal diabetes. Feeding of the safﬂower oil food improved lipoprotein lipase activity in skeletal and heart muscle that results in the elevation of fat oxidation rate and the depression of serum triacylglycerol level.
- Safﬂower oil have potential to improve the indications of meningitis (encephalomyelitis).
COMPOSITION OF SAFFLOWER OIL:
Safﬂower comprises intermediate to high oil contents (23-36%) depending upon variety used. Safﬂower seed contain the oil that rich in natural antioxidants such as a-tocopherol, b-tocopherol and g-tocopherol. Crude safﬂower contains 50% neutral lipids. Moreover, a higher contents of omega six fatty acids makes it a healthier choice for feeding especially where olive oil being the only but costly choice. The fatty acid composition of oils fluctuates with plant species, variety and growing conditions. Main unsaturated fatty acids are linoleic and oleic acid consist of 77.9-79% and 9-11% of total fatty acids correspondingly make it nutritionally valuable product for human intake. Whereas, saturated fatty acids are contemporary part of lower quantity fluctuating from 10% to 11% of total fatty acids. Major saturated fatty acids are palmitic and stearic acids comprising of 7-9% and 2-2.5% contents correspondingly. The functionality of oil seeds in pharmaceutical, industrial and food products be contingent on its fatty acid configuration. Although, safflower oil has many important constituents in it, which are improve the human health and others body functions. Two are slightly in details below
Generally, it is also known as vitamin E, are a set of lipid soluble structures having antioxidant features to defend polyunsaturated fatty acids in contrast to oxidation and used for as feedstuff, resins, diet and frying oil, pharmaceutical cosmetics and margarine. Due to its exposed non-allergic nature, it being used widely in cosmetics and attractive skin health and used in formulations of skin conditioners. Safﬂower oil also indorses hair and scalp vigor, several patients pronounce the usage of safﬂower oil in grouping with other oils or as a separate constituent in formulation of many herbal products and cosmetics. The growth promoting outcome of safﬂower oil on hairs and healthy skin is due to vitamin E and its light texture, that permits its simply absorption into the scalp.
Phospholipids are utilized as condiments in diets and non-food applications. These lipids are also operative as hypo cholesterolemic agents. Feeding of safﬂower phospholipids demonstrated required outcome on human health that is plasma membrane decline, lipids level decline in liver and an escalation in high concentration lipoprotein. Sterols and phytostanols are vital diet ingredients refining circulatory healthiness in human beings.
USES OF SAFFLOWER OIL AS NON-FOOD:
Traditionally, as non-food safflower has been used in the manufacture of detergents and soaps and in the production of candles, lubricants and greases. It is also used as the feedstock for the manufacture of biodiesel and as substitute to mineral oils for agricultural equipment’s and machinery. According to some people suggestions, it utilize in combination with castor oil for the production of biodiesel resulted in lesser viscidness biodiesel.
SAFﬂOWER OIL AS FOOD SUPPLEMENT:
Safflower oil can be combined into various beverages, health supplements, pharmaceuticals, fortiﬁcant for feed and food products. The incorporation of safﬂower oil will improve the biological characteristics of diet thereby helping to decrease human and animal alimentations. Safﬂower oil has ability to serve as natural vehicle for stabilizing and loading biological lipophilic compounds for evolving functional foods. Safﬂower oil suspensions can be a good source of nutritional supplements. According to an estimation, enhancement of 10-30 g safﬂower oil in goat diet has resulted that it expands the milk fat composition. Furthermore, nourishing safﬂower oil in lambs increased the amount of unsaturated fatty acids in muscle cells. Due to diverse nature of safﬂower oil along with good oxidative stability, it can be textured into different products like oregano gels.