C3 Plants or Insufficient Plants
During the Photosynthesis some plants fix CO2 and form the three carbons Molecule, 3 phosphoglyceric Acid (3PGA). Usually plants of this Category fallow the Calvin Cycle for CO2 assimilation.
Such Plants can’t use the water, light and resources efficiently so these are called insufficient plants.
Examples: Wheat, Oat, Rice, Soyabean, Banana, Cotton and rye.
C4 Plants or sufficient Plants
In these plants the first fix the CO2 and form the four carbon molecule during the photosynthesis. Usually these fallow the Hatch and Slack pathway of assimilation of CO2.
These do not exhibit the photorespiration so far they are the efficient in the use of water, light and resources.
Examples: Sugarcane, Sorghum, Maize
CAM Plants (Crassulation Acid Metabolism)
They fix the CO2 as the C4 But fixation of CO2 occur during the night they open the stomata duriong the night.
Examples: Pineapple, Pickly pear.
Mode of Propagation
Sexually Propagated Plants
These plants are propagated through the seed.
Example: Wheat, Barley, Rice, Cotton, Maize, Sorghum
Asexually or Vegetative Propagated Plants
Those plants which are propagated through asexually using some specialized parts of plants
Example: Sugarcane, Potato, Garlic, Some fruits and ornamental plants
Mode of Pollination
Those plants in which the pollen from one anther is transferred to the stigma of the same plant
Example: Wheat, Barley, Rice, Soybean, Sorghum
In these plants pollen from one plant is transferred by the insect, wind or any other mean to the stigma of another plant.
Example: Maize, Brassicas, Sunflower
Those plants which initiate their reproductive stage after the completing of the vegetative growth
Example: Wheat, Barley, Rice
In these Plants Vegetative and reproductive stages continue simultaneously
Example: Tomato, Okra, eggplant, Cucumber, Watermelon, Cotton.
Long Day Plants
Those plants which change from vegetative stage to reproductive stage by producing flowers and fruits when the days become longer
Example: Wheat, Barley, Oat, Gram
Short Day Plants
Those plants which change from vegetative stage to reproductive stage by producing flowers and fruits when the days become shorter
Examples: Rice, Soybean.
Day Neutral Plants
Those whose initiation of the flowering is not effected by day length
Tomato, Cucumber, Maize
A taproot system is one in which the primary root becomes the main root of the plant with minimal branching consisting of secondary, smaller lateral roots. The taproot system occurs in dicot plants
Example: Gram, Pea, Sarsoon, Cotton, soybean,
A fibrous root system (sometimes also called adventitious root system) is usually formed by thin, moderately branching roots growing from the stem. A fibrous root system is universal in monocotyledonous plants
Example: Wheat, Rice, Maize, Sugarcane, Sorghum
Monocotyledon seed plants
The plants have only one cotyledon in their seed
Example: Rice, Wheat, Maize, Sugarcane, Sorghum
Those plants whose have two cotyledon in their seed
Example: Gram, pea, reddish, potato, pumpkin, coriander, spinach, coffee, cotton, sunflower, soybeans
Mode of Germination
In this type of germination seed/ Cotyledon emerge out of the soil or above the soil
Examples: Cotton, Gram, Soybean,
In this type of germination seed/ Cotyledon remain in the soil or below the soil
Example: Wheat, Rice, Maize and Monocots
Author: Imran Ramzan*, Arslan Shehroz1, Muhamamd Zunair Latif2,
Author * Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture Faisalabad
1&2 Co-author Department of Plant pathology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad